REFERENCES 1. Linn & Gronlund, Measurement and as-
sessment in teaching, 7th edition, 1995.
2. Biehler & Snowman, Psychology applied to
teaching, 8/e, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1997.
3. Terence Crooks, The impact of classroom
evaluation practices on students, 1988.
4. Гильбух Ю.З. Метод психологических
тестов: сущность и значение // Вопросы
психологии. –№2, 1986.
5. Воскерчьян С.И. Об использовании ме-
тода тестов при учете успеваемости
школьников. // Сов. педагогика, №10,
6. Майоров А.Н. Мониторинг учебной эф-
фективности. // Народное образование. -
2000. - №1.
7. Штульман Э.А. Методический экспери-
мент в системе методов исследования. -
TEST TYPES AND TASK TYPES IN EFL TEACHING Slamkhanova M.K.
Test - is a short time, technically easy
set of tasks, which can be scored and is an in-
dicator of learners’ habits, skills and level of
knowledge [1, p. 32]. According to the defini-
tion, we may enumerate the following charac-
teristics of a test:
- it is a short-time assessment;
- it gives an opportunity to assess habits
and skills in a language of any number of pu-
pils at a definite period of time;
- it must be easily administered;
- the results of a test are objective, as
tests must be valid and reliable.
Being short-timed, tests allow the
teacher to administer them as often as it is
necessary for diagnosis and stimulating pupils’
learning. The forms of tasks in tests should be
quite specific. Tests are compiled in such a
way that they involve a stimulus on the part of
the teacher and the response on the part of the
pupil tested. One of the distinguishing peculi-
arities of teaching foreign languages is the
usage of a great variety of check exercises.
We can cite the idea of Hughes who
emphasizes that we can check the progress,
general or specific knowledge of students [3,
p. 5]. This claim will directly lead us to the
statement that for each of the purposes there is
a special type of testing. According to some
scholars (Thompson, 2001; Hughes, 1989;
ПРОБЛЕМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ Вестник КАСУ
Alderson, 1996; Heaton, 1990; Underhill,
1991), there are five traditional categories or
types of tests according to the aim and time of
conducting: proficiency tests, achievement
tests, diagnostic tests, prognostic tests, and
placement tests. Before writing a test it is vital
to think about what it is, you want to test and
what its purpose is:
- a proficiency test is one that measures
a candidates’ overall ability in a language, it
isn't related to a specific course;
- the most widespread are achievement
tests, which are held after learning some mate-
rial at a certain period of time. An achieve-
ment test tests the students' knowledge of the
material that has been taught;
- a diagnostic test highlights the strong
and weak points that a learner may have in a
- a prognostic test attempts to predict
how a student will perform on a course;
- a placement test is a test that places
the students at an appropriate level in a cur-
riculum or a course.
There are of course many other types of
tests. It is important to choose elicitation tech-
niques carefully when you prepare one of the
Diagnostic tests It is wise to start with that type of test-
ing, for it is typically the first step each
teacher, even non-language teacher, takes at
the beginning of a new school year.
Referring to Longman Dictionary of
LTAL (106) diagnostic tests is a test that is
meant to display what the student knows and
what s/he does not know. The dictionary gives
an example of testing the learners’ pronuncia-
tion of English sounds. Moreover, the test can
check the students’ knowledge before starting
a particular course. Hughes adds that diagnos-
tic tests are supposed to spot the students’
weak and strong points [3, p.6]. Heaton com-
pares such type of tests with a diagnosis of a
patient, and the teacher with a doctor who
states the diagnosis [2, p.13]. Underhill adds
that a diagnostic test provides the student with
a variety of language elements, which will
help the teacher to determine what the student
knows or does not know [5, p.14].
The diagnostic test displays the teacher
a situation of the students’ current knowledge.
This is very essential especially when the stu-
dents return from their summer holidays (that
produces a rather substantial gap in their
knowledge) or if the students start a new
course and the teacher is completely unfamil-
iar with the level of the group. Hence, the
teacher has to consider carefully about the
items s/he is interested in to teach. This con-
sideration reflects Heaton’s proposal, which
stipulates that the teacher should be systematic
to design the tasks that are supposed to illus-
trate the students’ abilities, and they should
know what exactly they are testing.
To conclude, we can conceive that in-
terpreting the results of diagnostic tests the
teacher apart from predicting why the student
has done the exercises the way s/he has, but
not the other, will receive a significant infor-
mation about his/her group s/he is going to
work with and later use the information as a
basis for the forming syllabus.
Another type of test we are intended to
discuss is a placement test. Concerning Long-
man Dictionary of LTAL again (279-280) we
can see that a placement test is a test that
places the students at an appropriate level in a
program or course. This term does not refer to
the system and construction of the test, but to
its usage purpose. According to Hughes
(1989:7), this type of test is also used to de-
cide which group or class the learner could be
joined to. This statement is entirely supported
by another scholar, Alderson (1996:216), who
declares that this type of test is meant for
showing the teacher the students’ level of the
language ability. It will assist to put the stu-
dent exactly in that group that responds his/her
Heaton adheres that the following type
of testing should be general and should purely
focus on a vast range of topics of the language
not on just specific one. Therefore, the place-
ment test could typically be represented in the
form of dictations, interviews, grammar tests,
etc. [2, p.14]
Moreover, according to Heaton, the
placement test should deal exactly with the
language skills relevant to those that will be
taught during a particular course. Thus,
Heaton presumes that it is fairly important to
analyze and study the syllabus beforehand, for
the placement test is completely attributed to
ПРОБЛЕМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ Вестник КАСУ
the future course program [2, p.15]. Likewise,
the matter of scoring is particularly significant
in the case of placement tests, for the scores
gathered serve as a basis for putting the stu-
dents into different groups appropriate to their
Progress test Having discussed two types of tests that
are usually used at the beginning, we can ap-
proach the test typically employed during the
study year to check the students’ development.
We will speak about a progress test. Accord-
ing to Alderson, progress test will show the
teacher whether the students have learnt the
recently taught material successfully [5,
p.117]. Basically, the teacher intends to check
certain items, not general topics covered dur-
ing the school or study year. Commonly, it is
not very long and is determined to check the
recent material. Therefore, the teacher might
expect his/her learners to get rather high
scores. The following type is supposed to be
used after the students have learnt either a set
of units on a theme or have covered a definite
topic of the language. It will display the
teacher whether the material has been success-
fully acquired or the students need additional
practice instead of starting a new material.
A progress test will basically display the
activities based on the material the teacher is
determined to check. To evaluate it the teacher
can work out a certain system of points that
later will compose a mark. Typically, such
tests do not influence the students’ final mark
at the end of the year.
Further, we can come to Alderson who
presumes that such type of testing could func-
tion as a motivating fact for the learners, for
success will develop the students’ confidence
in their own knowledge and motivate them
study further more vigorously [5, p.120]. In
case, there will be two or three students whose
scores are rather low, the teacher should en-
courage them by providing support in future
and imply the idea that studying hard will al-
low them to catch up with the rest of the stu-
dents sooner or later.
However, if the majority of the class
scores a rather low grade, the teacher should
be cautious. This could be a signal that there is
either something wrong with the teaching or
the students are low motivated or lazy.
Achievement tests Apart from a progress test the teachers
employ another type – achievement test. Ac-
cording to Longman Dictionary of LTAL , an
achievement test is a test, which measures a
language someone has learned during a spe-
cific course, study or program [4, p.134]. Here
the progress is significant and, therefore, is the
main point tested.
Alderson posits that achievement tests
are “more formal” [4, p.129], whereas Hughes
assumes that this type of tests will fully in-
volve teachers, for they will be responsible for
the preparation of such tests and giving them
to the learners [3, p.167]. He repeats the dic-
tionary defining the notion of achievement
tests, adding just that success of the students,
groups of students, or the courses.
Furthermore, Alderson conceives that
achievement tests are mainly given at definite
times of the school year. Moreover, they could
be extremely crucial for the students, for they
are intended either to make the students pass
or fail the test [5, p. 130].
Quoting Hughes we can differentiate
between two kinds of achievement tests: final
and progress tests [3, p.168]. Final tests are the
tests that are usually given at the end of the
course in order to check the students’ achieved
results and whether the objectives set at the
beginning have been successfully reached.
Further Hughes highlights that ministries of
education, official examining boards, school
administration and even the teachers them-
selves design these tests. The tests are based
on the curriculum and the course that has been
studied. We assume, that it is a well- known
fact that teachers usually are responsible for
composing such tests, and it requires a careful
Further, Alderson and Heaton stipulate
that designing an achievement test is rather
time-consuming, for the achievement test is
basically devised to cover a broad topic of the
material covered during the course. In addi-
tion, one and the same achievement test could
be given to more than one class at school to
check both the students’ progress and the
teachers’ work. At that point it is very essen-
tial to consider the material covered by differ-
ent classes or groups. You cannot ask the stu-
dents what they have not been taught [3, p.19].
To conclude we shall state again that
ПРОБЛЕМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ Вестник КАСУ
achievement tests are meant to check the mas-
tery of the material covered by the learners.
They will be great helpers for the teacher’s
future work and will contribute a lot to the
Proficiency tests The last type of test to be discussed is a
proficiency test. Regarding Longman Diction-
ary of LTAL proficiency test is a test, which
measures how much of a language a person
knows or has learnt. It is not bound to any cur-
riculum or syllabus, but is intended to check
the learners’ language competence [4, p.92].
Although, some preparation and administra-
tion was done before taking the test, the test’s
results are what being focused on. The exam-
ples of such tests could be the American Test-
ing of English as Foreign Language test
(TOEFL) that is used to measure the learners’
general knowledge of English in order to al-
low them to enter any high educational estab-
lishments or to take up a job in the USA.
Hughes gives the similar definition of
proficiency tests stressing that training is not
the thing that is emphasized, but the language.
He adds that ‘proficient’ in the case of profi-
ciency tests means possessing a certain ability
of using the language according to an appro-
priate purpose [3, p.10]. It denotes that the
learner’s language ability could be tested in
various fields or subjects (art, science, medi-
cine, etc.) in order to check whether the
learner could suit the demands of a specific
field or not.
Moreover, Hughes believes that the pro-
ficiency tests affect learners’ more in negative
way, than in positive one [3, p.12].
To summarize we can claim that there
are different types of tests that serve for dif-
ferent purposes. Moreover, they all are neces-
sary for the teacher’s work, for them, apart
from a proficiency test, could contribute to
successful material acquisition by learners.
There are many elicitation techniques
that can be used when writing a test. Using the
right kind of question at the right time can be
enormously important in giving us a clear un-
derstanding of students' abilities, but we must
also be aware of the limitations of each of
these task or question types so that we use
each on appropriately [2, p.16].
The main part of so called objective
tests is made up in technique of multiple
choice. Multiple-choice type is considered to
be the most effective of the objective types.
1) He likes to lie in bed.
2) He often says things that are not true.
3) He is a sly man.
4) He often lays things in wrong places.
Multiple choice can be used to test most
things such as grammar, vocabulary, reading,
listening etc. but you must remember that it is
still possible for students to just 'guess' with-
out knowing the correct answer.
Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first. 'Do you know what the time is, John?' asked Dave. Dave asked John __________ (what) _______________ it was.
Transformations are particularly effec-
tive for testing grammar and understanding of
form. This wouldn't be an appropriate question
type if you wanted to test skills such as read-
ing or listening.
Complete the sentence Check the exchange ______________ to see how much your money is worth.
Gap-fills can be used to test a variety of
areas such as vocabulary, grammar and are
very effective at testing listening for specific
Test can be made up also on matching.
So, for example, pupils can be suggested to
match adjectives from the left column to the
nouns in the right one. Of course technique of
matching is applicable to a limited number of
tests. Match the word on the left to the word with the opposite meaning.
ПРОБЛЕМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ Вестник КАСУ
Fat old Young tall Dangerous thin Short safe
Matching exercises are most often used
to test vocabulary.
Complete the text by adding a word to each gap. This is the kind _____ test where a word _____ omitted from a passage every so often. The candidate must _____ the gaps, usually the first two lines are without gaps.
Cloze tests can be very effective for
testing grammar, vocabulary and intensive
True / False
In true-false type of tests pupils deter-
mine whether answers are correct or wrong.
On the special sheets of paper they write “W”
(wrong), “R” (right) opposite the number of
appropriate task. The priority of this type of
test is in easiness of checking, but while con-
ducting the test do not exclude the possibility
for casual guessing what essentially decreases
the objectivity Decide if the statement is true or false. England won the world cup in 1966 T/F This question type is mostly used to test
listening and reading comprehension.
Open questions Answer the questions. Why did John steal the money? Error correction Find the mistakes in the sentence and correct them. Ipswich Town was the better team on the night. Errors must be found and corrected in a
sentence or passage. It could be an extra word,
mistakes with verb forms, words missed, etc.
One problem with this question type is that
some errors can be corrected in more than one
way [2, p.30].
Error correction is useful for testing
grammar and vocabulary as well as readings
There are of course many other elicita-
tion techniques such as translation, essays,
dictations, ordering words/phrases into a se-
quence and sentence construction (He/ go/
It is important to ask yourself what ex-
actly you are trying to test, which techniques
suit this purpose best and to bear in mind the
drawbacks of each technique.
REFERENCES 1. Bynom, A.
/ Bynom, A. -
English Teaching professional Forum July.
Issue Twenty – p. 95-99.
2. Heaton J. B Classroom Testing / Heaton J.
B. - Longman London1990 – p.10-20.
3. Hughes A. Testing for Language Teachers/
Hughes A. - Cambridge
1989. - p. 45.
4. Richards J. Language Teaching and Applied
Linguistics/ Richards J. - Longman Diction-
ary. Longman1992. – 134 p.
5. Underhill N. Testing Spoken Language/
Underhill N. - Cambridge University Press
МЕТОДИКА ОБУЧЕНИЯ ЛЕКСИКИ И ГРАММАТИКИ Вестник КАСУ
IMPORTANCE OF VOCABULARY IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Kulinka Y.
Educational institutions are oriented to-
ward improving the quality of the educational
process and the effectiveness of learning a
foreign language. During XX century linguis-
tics, psychology, methodology and didactics
solve a number of interrelated problems of
learning and mastery of foreign language
learners of all ages and levels of education. In
particular, it is important for school and uni-
versity methodology problem that the assimi-
lation of language is a process, which is not
particularly clear. Some words and phrases are
memorized easily for the assimilation while
others require special exercise. But with dif-
ferentiated work students can take an active
If the student can perform the equiva-
lent of the word of the native language, does
this mean that he knows the word? Appar-
ently, he does. Does this mean that the student
will correctly use the same words in express-
ing his thoughts? Most likely, no, it is not.
If the student, seeing a foreign word,
learns it, but he does not understand the mean-
ing. Does this mean that he knows the word?
Yes, he knows it. But is this knowledge
enough for reading texts, not to mention for-
eign language communication? Of course, it is
Vocabulary is one of the most important
parts of the teaching process. Vocabulary is a
stock of words that every language contains.
Vocabulary is the basis of every language.
Teacher has to introduce the new language in
such a way as to capture the students’ atten-
tion and place the words in their memories. So
that to progress in vocabulary learning stu-
dents need to be aware of some techniques for
memorizing lots of new words. Vocabulary
learning can often be seen as a difficult proc-
ess of memorizing lists of unrelated terms.
Nevertheless, there are many interesting and
successful ways of learning and teaching vo-
cabulary in the ESL classroom.
What is vocabulary? Vocabulary is a set
of words of a language. The words that people
use in their practice of speech, oral or written,
shall constitute an active vocabulary. Vocabu-
lary in the language is an essential component
of language skills: listening and speaking,
reading and writing. The richer and more var-
ied vocabulary a person has, the easier it is it
uses his language.
The main purpose of learning the lexical
material is to develop student’s vocabulary
skills as an essential component of expressive
and receptive types of speech activity.
There is a scale for languages for the re-
ception, production, and interaction, which
gives an idea those students, should be able to
start to learn a language .
To recognize familiar
words and basic phrases
concerning the environ-
ment. Communication in simple language,
but communication strategy depends
on repetition, rephrasing and repeti-
tion, ask and answer simple questions.
Produce simple phrases and
sentences about people,