The history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begins with
Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump
and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres. Guericke was driven
to make a vacuum in order to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that 'nature
abhors a vacuum'. Shortly after Guericke, the English physicist and chemist Robert
Boyle had learned of Guericke's designs and, in 1656, in coordination with English
scientist Robert Hooke, built an air pump.
noticed a correlation between pressure, temperature, and volume. In time, Boyle's
Law was formulated, which states that pressure and volume are inversely
proportional. Then, in 1679, based on these concepts, an associate of Boyle's named
Denis Papinbuilt a steam digester, which was a closed vessel with a tightly fitting lid
that confined steam until a high pressure was generated.
Later designs implemented a steam release valve that kept the machine from
exploding. By watching the valve rhythmically move up and down, Papin conceived
of the idea of a piston and a cylinder engine. He did not, however, follow through
with his design. Nevertheless, in 1697, based on Papin's designs, engineer Thomas
Savery built the first engine, followed by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. Although
these early engines were crude and inefficient, they attracted the attention of the
leading scientists of the time.
The fundamental concepts of heat capacity and latent heat, which were
necessary for the development of thermodynamics, were developed by Professor
Joseph Black at the University of Glasgow, where James Watt was employed as an
instrument maker. Black and Watt performed experiments together, but it was Watt
who conceived the idea of the external condenser which resulted in a large increase in
"father of thermodynamics", to publish Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire
(1824), a discourse on heat, power, energy and engine efficiency. The paper outlined
the basic energetic relations between the Carnot engine, the Carnot cycle, and motive
power. It marked the start of thermodynamics as a modern science.
The first thermodynamic textbook was written in 1859 by William Rankine,
originally trained as a physicist and a civil and mechanical engineering professor at
the University of Glasgow.
The first and second laws of thermodynamics emerged
Clausius, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin).
The foundations of statistical thermodynamics were set out by physicists such
as James Clerk Maxwell, Ludwig Boltzmann, Max Planck,Rudolf Clausius and J.
During the years 1873-76 the American mathematical physicist Josiah Willard
Gibbs published a series of three papers, the most famous being On the Equilibrium
of Heterogeneous Substances,
including chemical reactions, could be graphically analyzed, by studying the energy,
entropy, volume, temperature and pressure of the thermodynamic system in such a
manner, one can determine if a process would occur spontaneously.
20th century, chemists such as Gilbert N. Lewis, Merle Randall,
and E. A.
4.Electricity and magnetism
The first alternator to produce alternating current was a dynamo electric
generator based on Michael Faraday's principles constructed by the French
instrument maker Hippolyte Pixii in 1832.
Pixii later added a commutator to his
recorded practical application of alternating current is by Guillaume Duchenne,
inventor and developer of electrotherapy. In 1855, he announced that AC was
superior to direct current for electrotherapeutic triggering of muscle contractions.
Alternating current technology had first developed in Europe due to the work
of Guillaume Duchenne (1850s), The Hungarian Ganz Works (1870s), Sebastian
Ziani de Ferranti(1880s), Lucien Gaulard, and Galileo Ferraris.
In 1876, Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based
on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of
AC. The secondary windings could be connected to several 'electric candles' (arc
lamps) of his own design.
The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially
In 1878, the Ganz factory, Budapest, Hungary, began manufacturing
equipment for electric lighting and, by 1883, had installed over fifty systems in
Austria-Hungary. Their AC systems used arc and incandescent lamps, generators, and
A power transformer developed by Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs was
demonstrated in London in 1881, and attracted the interest of Westinghouse. They
also exhibited the invention in Turin in 1884.
In the autumn of 1884, Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri
(ZBD), three engineers associated with the Ganz factory, determined that open-core
devices were impractical, as they were incapable of reliably regulating voltage.
their joint 1885 patent applications for novel transformers (later called ZBD
transformers), they described two designs with closed magnetic circuits where copper
windings were either a) wound around iron wire ring core or b) surrounded by iron
windings traveled almost entirely within the confines of the iron core, with no
intentional path through air (see Toroidal cores below). The new transformers were
3.4 times more efficient than the open-core bipolar devices of Gaulard and Gibbs.
The Ganz factory in 1884 shipped the world's first five high-efficiency AC
1,400 W, 40 Hz, 120:72 V, 11.6:19.4 A, ratio 1.67:1, one-phase, shell form.
The ZBD patents included two other major interrelated innovations: one
loads, the other concerning the ability to have high turns ratio transformers such that
the supply network voltage could be much higher (initially 1,400 to 2,000 V) than the
voltage of utilization loads (100 V initially preferred).
When employed in
parallel connected electric distribution systems, closed-core transformers finally
made it technically and economically feasible to provide electric power for lighting in
homes, businesses and public spaces.
The other essential milestone was the introduction of 'voltage source, voltage
intensive' (VSVI) systems'
Ottó Bláthy also invented the first AC electricity meter.
The AC power systems was developed and adopted rapidly after 1886 due to
limitations of thedirect current system. In 1886, the ZBD engineers designed, and the
Ganz factory supplied electrical equipment for, the world's first power station that
used AC generators to power a parallel connected common electrical network, the
steam-powered Rome-Cerchi power plant.
received impetus after the Ganz Works electrified a large European metropolis: Rome
The city lights of Prince George, British Columbia viewed in a motion blurred
In the UK Sebastian de Ferranti, who had been developing AC generators and
transformers in London since 1882, redesigned the AC system at the Grosvenor
Gallery power station in 1886 for the London Electric Supply Corporation (LESCo)
including alternators of his own design and transformer designs similar to Gaulard
In 1890 he designed their power station at Deptford
the Grosvenor Gallery station across the Thames into an electrical substation,
showing the way to integrate older plants into a universal AC supply system.
In the US William Stanley, Jr. designed one of the first practical devices to
on a common iron core, his design, called an induction coil, was an early (1885)
transformer. Stanley also worked on engineering and adapting European designs such
as the Gaulard and Gibbs transformer for US entrepreneur George Westinghouse who
started building AC systems in 1886. The spread of Westinghouse and other AC
systems triggered a push back in late 1887 by Thomas Edison (a proponent of direct
current) who attempted to discredit alternating current as too dangerous in a public
campaign called the "War of Currents".
In 1888 alternating current systems gained further viability with introduction of
a functional AC motor, something these systems had lacked up till then. The design,
an induction motor, was independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla
(with Tesla's design being licensed by Westinghouse in the US). This design was
further developed into the modern practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-
Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown.
The Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant (spring of 1891) and the original
hydroelectric AC-power plants. The first commercial power plant in the United States
using three-phase alternating current was the hydroelectric Mill Creek No. 1
Hydroelectric Plant near Redlands, California, in 1893 designed by Almirian Decker.
Decker's design incorporated 10,000-volt three-phase transmission and established
the standards for the complete system of generation, transmission and motors used
The Jaruga Hydroelectric Power Plant in Croatia was set in operation on 28
produced and installed by the Hungarian company Ganz. The transmission line from
the power plant to the City ofŠibenik was 11.5 kilometers (7.1 mi) long on wooden
towers, and the municipal distribution grid 3000 V/110 V included six transforming
Alternating current circuit theory developed rapidly in the latter part of the 19th
and early 20th century. Notable contributors to the theoretical basis of alternating
current calculations include Charles Steinmetz, Oliver Heaviside, and many
symmetrical componentsmethods discussed by Charles Legeyt Fortescue in 1918.
The physics of electromagnetic radiation is electrodynamics. Electromagnetism
is the physical phenomenon associated with the theory of electrodynamics. Electric
and magnetic fields obey the properties of superposition. Thus, a field due to any
particular particle or time-varying electric or magnetic field contributes to the fields
present in the same space due to other causes. Further, as they are vector fields, all
magnetic and electric field vectors add together according to vector addition. For
example, in optics two or more coherent lightwaves may interact and by constructive
or destructive interference yield a resultant irradiance deviating from the sum of the
component irradiances of the individual lightwaves.
Since light is an oscillation it is not affected by travelling through static electric
or magnetic fields in a linear medium such as a vacuum. However, in nonlinear
media, such as some crystals, interactions can occur between light and static electric
and magnetic fields — these interactions include the Faraday effect and the Kerr
In refraction, a wave crossing from one medium to another of different density
alters its speed and direction upon entering the new medium. The ratio of the
refractive indices of the media determines the degree of refraction, and is summarized
by Snell's law. Light of composite wavelengths (natural sunlight) disperses into a
visible spectrum passing through a prism, because of the wavelength-dependent
refractive index of the prism material (dispersion); that is, each component wave
within the composite light is bent a different amount.
EM radiation exhibits both wave properties and particle properties at the same
confirmed in many experiments. Wave characteristics are more apparent when EM
radiation is measured over relatively large timescales and over large distances while
particle characteristics are more evident when measuring small timescales and
distances. For example, when electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by matter,
particle-like properties will be more obvious when the average number of photons in
the cube of the relevant wavelength is much smaller than 1. It is not too difficult to
experimentally observe non-uniform deposition of energy when light is absorbed,
however this alone is not evidence of "particulate" behavior. Rather, it reflects the
quantum nature of matter.
merely its interaction with matter, is a more subtle affair.
Some experiments display both the wave and particle natures of
electromagnetic waves, such as the self-interference of a singlephoton.
interfering with itself, as waves do, yet is detected by a photomultiplier or other
sensitive detector only once.
A quantum theory of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and
matter such as electrons is described by the theory ofquantum electrodynamics.
Electromagnetic waves can be polarized, reflected, refracted, diffracted or
interfere with each other.
Glossy surfaces such as mirrors reflect light in a simple, predictable way. This
allows for production of reflected images that can be associated with an actual (real)
or extrapolated (virtual) location in space.
With such surfaces, the direction of the reflected ray is determined by the angle
the incident ray makes with the surface normal, a line perpendicular to the surface at
the point where the ray hits. The incident and reflected rays lie in a single plane, and
the angle between the reflected ray and the surface normal is the same as that
between the incident ray and the normal.
This is known as the Law of Reflection.
and the same distance behind the mirror as the objects are in front of the mirror. The
image size is the same as the object size. (The magnification of a flat mirror is equal
to one.) The law also implies that mirror images are parity inverted, which is
perceived as a left-right inversion.
Mirrors with curved surfaces can be modeled by ray tracing and using the law
of reflection at each point on the surface. For mirrors with parabolic surfaces, parallel
rays incident on the mirror produce reflected rays that converge at a common focus.
Other curved surfaces may also focus light, but with aberrations due to the diverging
shape causing the focus to be smeared out in space. In particular, spherical mirrors
exhibit spherical aberration. Curved mirrors can form images with magnification
greater than or less than one, and the image can be upright or inverted. An upright
image formed by reflection in a mirror is always virtual, while an inverted image is
real and can be projected onto a screen.
As we explained in a previous atom, diffraction is defined as the bending of a
wave around the edges of an opening or obstacle. Diffraction is a phenomenon all
wave types can experience. It is explained by the Huygens-Fresnel Principle, and the
principal of superposition of waves. The former states that every point on a wavefront
is a source of wavelets. These wavelets spread out in the forward direction, at the
same speed as the source wave. The new wavefront is a line tangent to all of the
wavelets. The superposition principle states that at any point, the net result of
multiple stimuli is the sum of all stimuli.
Single Slit Diffraction
In single slit diffraction, the diffraction pattern is determined by the wavelength
and by the length of the slit. Figure 1 shows a visualization of this pattern. This is the
most simplistic way of using the Huygens-Fresnel Principle, which was covered in a
previous atom, and applying it to slit diffraction. But what happens when the slit is
NOT the exact (or close to exact) length of a single wave?
Single Slit Diffraction - One Wavelength
6. Atomic physics
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a
particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of
Known elementary particles include the fundamental fermions
and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and the
Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactionsamong
A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite
Everyday matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be matter's
elementary particles—atom meaning "unable to cut" in Greek—although the atom's
existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists
regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of
Soon, subatomic constituents of the atom were identified. As the 1930s
opened, the electron and the proton had been observed, along with the photon, the
particle of electromagnetic radiation.
At that time, the recent advent of quantum
seemingly span a field as would a wave, a paradox still eluding satisfactory
Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks—up
quarks and down quarks—now considered elementary particles.
molecule, the electron's three degrees of freedom (charge, spin, orbital) can separate
viawavefunction into three quasiparticles (holon, spinon, orbiton).
electron—which, not orbiting an atomic nucleus, lacks orbital motion—appears
unsplittable and remains regarded as an elementary particle.
Around 1980, an elementary particle's status as indeed elementary—an
embodied in particle physics' Standard Model, science's most
experimentally successful theory.
the Standard Model, including the extremely popular supersymmetry, double the
number of elementary particles by hypothesizing that each known particle associates
with a "shadow" partner far more massive,
although all such superpartners remain
All elementary particles are—depending on their spin—either bosons or
statistics. Particles of half-integer spin exhibit Fermi–Dirac statisticsand are
Einstein statistics and are bosons.