ҚАЗАҚСТАН РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ БІЛІМ ЖӘНЕ ҒЫЛЫМ МИНИСТРЛІГІ МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН М .ӨТЕМ ІСОВ АТЫ НДАҒЫ
БАТЫ С ҚАЗАҚСТАН
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ХАБАРШЫ Жылына 4 рет шығады № 2 (54) - 2014 ВЕСТНИК Выходит 4 раза в год ЗАПАД Н О -КА ЗА Х СТА Н СКИ И
ИМ. М. УТЕМ ИСОВА
ПЕДАГОГИКА ПЕДАГО ГИ КА PEDAGOGI CS U DC 37.01:002.5
S v e tla n a K u lm a g a m b e to v a
A ssociated professor, candidate in pedagogical sciences,
M. U tem issov W K SU
E -m a il: svetlana-sk-68@ m ail.ru
D r C h in m a y P a n d y a B Sc, M B B S , P G D ip l, M R C P sy c h (L o n d o n )
Pro Vice C hancellor Director, School o f Y oga and H ealth
Chairperson, International Festival for Y oga, Culture and Spirituality,
Dev Sanskriti U niversity, India
E -m a il: chinm ay.pandya2011@ gm ail.com
G E N E R E A L P E D A G O G IC A L T E C H N O L O G IE S IN H IG H E R
E D U C A T IO N A L S Y S T E M
Аннотация. In this article are considered topical issues of pedagogical technologies and
defined the concepts "technology", "pedagogical technology". Also there are considered pedagogical
technologies of training to help students in higher educational system with subject understanding of
problematical character of shown tasks; to teach to distinguish and analyze problem situations; to find
ways, approaches, ways on permission of problem situations for students.
It is possible to find answers in article to such questions as: what to teach? for what to teach?
how to teach productively?
Keywords: pedagogics, technology of training, pedagogical technology, education,
productivity, higher educational system, creation, activity, group of students.
Depending on character o f the environment (or conditions) training all known
technological ways o f training can be divided into three groups:
1. Technological ways which can be used within traditional hour system (the
problem training, developing training, game and others);
2. Technological ways which demand organizational reconstruction of higher
education institution work (the concentrated training, a collective way of training and
3. Technological ways which demand change o f the content o f education
("dialogue of cultures", probabilistic education and others).
Complexity, versatility o f pedagogical activity is a factor that opens a scope for
many pedagogical technologies. Nowadays dynamics o f technologies constantly
grows. The wide range, diversity o f pedagogical technologies cause the need of their
classification where pedagogical technologies are grouped in various system and
significant signs .
G.K. Selevko , considering pedagogical technology and as the science
investigating the most rational ways o f training, and as system o f ways, principles and
regulatives, applied in training, and as real process o f training, generalizing various
classification approaches, gives the following classification of pedagogical
1. On application level:
• an all-pedagogical - it concern general principles o f educational processes;
• subjective - they are intended for improvement o f teaching o f separate subjects;
• local and modular - they provide partial changes of the pedagogical phenomena;
2. On personal orientation:
• informative: it is a formation o f knowledge, abilities, skills;
• operational: it is a formation o f ways o f intellectual actions;
• emotionally-artistic and emotional-moral: that is a formation o f the sphere of
esthetic and moral relations;
• technologies o f self-development is a formation o f self-administrative
mechanisms o f the personality;
• heuristic: it is a development o f creative abilities;
• applied technologies: it means formation o f effective and practical sphere.
3. On organization and management o f cognitive activity:
• structural and logical technologies o f training. It means stage-by-stage
formulations o f didactic tasks, a choice o f way of their decision, diagnostics and an
assessment o f the received results;
• integration technologies: they are didactic systems which are provides an
integration o f the multisubjective knowledge and abilities, different types o f activity at
the level o f the integrated courses, educational subjects, educational problems and
other forms of organization o f training;
• game technologies - game form of interaction of the teacher and students which
promotes formation of abilities to solve problems on the basis of a competent choice of
alternative options through realization of a certain subject. In educational process are used
business, role, team, "teacher - student" and etc. kinds of game technologies;
4. On character o f the contents and structure: training and bringing up, secular
and religious, general education and professionally focused, hum anitarian and
technocratic, various branch, private subjective, and also monotechnologies, complex
(polytechnologies) and getting technologies.
5. In organizational forms: group and alternative, academic and club, individual
and collective ways of the training, the differentiated training.
6. On a prevailing (dominating) method: dogmatic, reproductive, explanatory
and illustrative, the programmed training, the problem training, the developing
information (computer) and other technologies.
7. On category o f the student: mass (traditional academic technology calculated
on the average student, technologies o f the advanced level (profound studying o f the
subjects, vocational education and others), technologies o f compensating training
(pedagogical correction, support, alignment, etc.), victimological technologies (surdo-,
ortho-, tiflo-, and oligophrenic pedagogic).
8. In the direction o f modernization o f existing traditional system: on the basis
o f a humanization and democratization o f pedagogical relations, on the basis o f
activization and an intensification o f students activity, on the basis o f efficiency o f the
organization and management o f training process, on the basis o f methodical
improvement and didactic reconstruction o f the training material, alternative, complete
technologies o f authors’ pedagogic methods.
G en eral technologies
On the basis o f the analysis o f literature it is necessary to specify that and
widespread the next technological ways o f training are the most known :
1. Traditional training:
Traditional training, though isn't among modern ways, is widely used in practice
o f training. In it is possible to allocate a certain accurate procedure: updating o f former
knowledge (poll), statement of a new material, fixing, homework. Such creation of
educational process completely corresponds to logic o f assimilation o f knowledge and
fields good results if the purpose o f training is assimilation o f the actual information
and formation o f practical abilities;
2. The differentiated training:
Differentiation o f training can be carried out on the different signs, the most
widespread, training differentiation on training standard level (level o f knowledge) or
on level o f students educational opportunities (more difficult option). The technology
o f level differentiation assumes preliminary division o f group of students on micro
groups with different level of knowledge and exarticulation in a training material of
several (usually three) types o f programs: standard, enriched and advanced. Process of
training is under construction in traditional sequence: presentation o f a new material,
fixing, repetition, control. However, during the fixing, repetition and control students
from different groups carry out tasks o f different level o f complexity and therefore
acquire a training material at the level;
3. Individual training;
4. Collective training;
5. Developing training;
6. Training on the basis of model o f full assimilation o f knowledge;
7. The concentrated training and etc.
T ypes of th e gen eral pedagogical technologies
According to the leading concept the content of education is considered now as a
complex of elements of social experience . Social experience is understood as set of
activity, each of which assumes existence o f the purpose, means, ways and result.
Making a start from the types of educational process offered by M.A. Galanova:
dogmatic, explanatory, productive, we add according to levels o f assimilation o f the
content o f education suggestive, personal and explanatory, called reproductive, break
into formal and intrinsic subtypes .
Dogmatic training became the first type which had a wide circulation: many
people owning the diploma, able to consider, write were required, but not to think. Any
deviation from dogmas was immediately stopped and guaranteed inability o f person
was the most cardinal means o f fight against heresy is critical to belong to learned, to
analyze and estimate facts. Units from ten thousand made the way through thickness of
cramming to own opinion to truth.
In process o f development o f means o f production, complication o f labor
process and tasks solved by the worker execution o f sample actions and skillful
activity, application o f labor receptions in various situations was not required. It is easy
to see result o f reproductive type o f educational process in this characteristic.
The reproductive training aimed at the fastest development by the individual of
available experience, doesn't demand explanations, these are our traditions. Training
programs, textbooks, habitual style o f interaction with student, settled forms of
education and first o f all, class period organization o f offices and all educational
building - all these are most adapted today for requirements o f this type o f educational
The reproduction prepared the competent worker, but perform er not capable to
create a new. New social requirement was expressed in the sixties our century by the
Russia philosopher said that nowadays modern students know much more than Socrat,
but whether they think as he? Promotion o f problem training, later - active methods o f
training became the answer to the social order. Need o f productive type to prove isn't
present need: all have on lips a creativity development, activization o f informative
activity. It is necessary to recognize soberly only that the surroundings o f higher
education institution doesn't change since time o f the founder o f didactics. Occupation,
the clumsiest from positions o f creative activity, admits quality o f "the main
organizational form of education". This fact can't be considered as a lack o f student
teaching: it follows, according to one more regularity o f education that arrow of social
requirement yet doesn't indicate graduate creator and it can't be mass productive type.
And nevertheless, productive type is a requirem ent o f time, a logical step o f
development o f student teaching. Its characteristic features are independent, instead of
the informative activity organized by teacher and creative thinking as a key element of
result of student’s education. It is clear why all modern recommendations about
improvement o f process o f training agree on developing training and use o f active
methods o f training. Nowadays
educated person has to be able to create own
Type o f teaching and educational process, urged to respond to such social order
- personal. The name says not that public shape (mask) o f the person here is formed, it
was in any type of education, and that formation of knowledge, ways o f activity,
thinking is used as means of education o f personality, its "self-growing" in close
contact, cooperating with others. Product o f this type — people not with the imposed
moral person, and the identity which has built in creative social interaction with others.
Result o f formal and reproductive type - knowledge, respectively control tasks
are tests, questions directed on reproduction, storing, control o f actions.
The end o f result of intrinsic and reproductive level are abilities, therefore,
supervising procedure will be connected with the solution o f tasks with deviations from
standard algorithm, with independent designing o f answers.
Productive type. Result - creative thinking. Control tasks contain tasks -
Personal type. Result - personality. Participation in imitating (business) games
allows to see manifestation o f personal qualities o f student, i.e. control assumes an out
gaming o f personal situations.
The choice o f technology o f training depends on the planned direction o f a
development o f education. The m odern paradigm o f education is connected with
introduction in school practice personal the focused training. Therefore the focused
technologies become the most significant personal. They assume:
1. Updating of the content of education (if we plan to use a certain technology
in the course o f training, we seek to create, select, transform already available contents
education so that it logically and "technologically" laid down in planned process);
2. Formation at students o f requirement for receiving the fundamental scientific
and practical-focused knowledge;
3. Development of qualities o f the identity of students (including intellectual)
allowing them to live in existing welfare conditions.
On orientation to personal structures pedagogical technologies can be shared on:
• Technologies of formation o f the sphere o f the esthetic and moral relations;
• Technologies of formation of self-operating mechanisms of the personality;
Inform ative activity
of the student
Typical m ethods of
train in g
Explanatory and illustrative
Reproductive, the solution of
Solution of the tasks making
personal vital sense
Any personal focused technology is under construction on a basis and taking into
account transfer being trained in a subject condition in the course of training and creation
subject - subject relations in the academic group. These relations develop from:
• communication organizations;
• organizations o f group activity o f students;
• uses (receptions) special technician;
• organizations of an assessment and self-assessment o f students;
• creations o f successful situation;
• creations o f confidential psychological climate on occupation.
The most difficult at introduction of focused technologies, besides actually
technological moments, obviously relation change "Teacher - student" will be personal.
These relations are key in considered technologies, expressing their main idea and
strategic line. In case when teacher simply uses a set technician (receptions) and
relations remain at former, authoritative level, it’s difficult to speak about realization
personal to focused technology. A t the same time, researches showed that more than
40% o f teachers in professional activity are focused on satisfaction of requirement for
domination and suppression that is on authoritative style .
Expert teachers develop author's technologies which combine elements o f the
approved technologies in different options. As a rule, all o f them are focused on
implementation o f contents and achievement of purpose o f different level and
There can be built different technologies on the basis o f one theory of training.
For example, in higher education establishments are used when training future highly
qualified specialists set o f technologies on training. But together with it, it is necessary
to consider specifics of specialty always. W e agree that the theory o f problem training
is the basis for technologies which develop thinkful and creative abilities, informative
activity, interest, independence of personality, but at the same time construction o f one
theory, concept o f several technologies of training isn't testimony o f their identity.
They will always differ in quantitative and qualitative parameters. In this regard it is
important to have complete system o f means o f description o f pedagogical
technologies, considering that each o f them contains conceptual, substantial and
L ist of references
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C.C. Қүлмағамбетова, д-р Чинмэй Пандя
Ж оғары білім беру жүйесіндегі жалпы педагогикалық технологиялар
Айтылмыш мақалада педагогикалық технологиялар қарастырылады. Сонымен қатар,
беріліп отырған тапсырманың мәселелігін пәндік түргыда түсініп білуге көмектесу; туындаған
мәселелерді сараптап, жеңіл шешімін таба білуге; туындаған мәселелерді реттеуде жоғары
білім беру жүйесінің студенттеріне жеке мэнді болуының айлаларын қарастыра білуге уйрету
мақсатындагы тапсырмалар жүйесі мен зерттеу амалдары нысанында оқу танымы ретіндегі
оқыту технологиялары қарастырылады.
Мақалада келеі сүрақтардың жауабын табуға болады: неге оқытуга болады? не үшін
оқыту керек? қалай нэтижелі оқытуга болады?
Түйін сөз: педагогика, оқыту технологиясы, педагогикалық технология,білім беру,
нәтижелілік, жогары білім беру жүйесі, туынды, эрекет, студенттер тобы.
Кулмагамбетова С.С., д-р Чинмэй Пандя
Общие педагогические технологии в системе высшего образования
В данной статье рассматриваются актуальные вопросы педагогических технологий,
определяются понятия «технология», «педагогическая технология». Также рассматриваются
педагогические технологии обучения, чтобы помочь обучающимся высшей системы
образования в предметном понимании проблемности предъявляемых задач; научить
распознавать и анализировать проблемные ситуации; находить способы, подходы, пути по
разрешению проблемных ситуаций для обучающихся.
В статье можно найти ответы на такие вопросы, как: чему учить? зачем учить? как
Ключевые слова: педагогика, технология обучения, педагогическая технология,
образование, результативность, системы высшего образования, творение, деятельность, группа
У Д К 377.12/.8:004(574)
B .E .K h a m z in a , doctor o f pedagogical sciences,
associate professor o f Shokan U alikhanov K okshetau State U niversity