УДК 940 (420)
In the history o f Great Britain Margaret Thatcher holds a high and special place. She was British Prime Minister for the
debt in 1979-1990 years time. Margaret Thatcher in the UK held a number o f conservative measures, social and economic
reforms. It was called «Iron Lady» for criticism o f the Soviet leadership. Today, the life and activities o f Margaret Thatcher
was reflected in numerous scientific and political, historical research.
Contemporary History, Politics, United Kingdom, politician, political party, economy, social reform,
economic reform, culture
Twentieth centuiy British history was perhaps the most turbulent and rich in historical events. Many prominent
British politicians o f the time firmly established in the history o f the world, showing the greatness and power of
this country. Elizabeth II, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and many others - is only a partial list of figures
whose names became common and familiar to everyone now. But the most striking example of a politician o f the
twentieth centuiy is, in my opinion, Margaret Thatcher - the first woman in the history o f the UK Prime Minister,
which also was in this position longer than any other since the days o f Salisbury. It is difficult to overstate the
contribution to the development o f not only the UK but the whole history of the world as a whole. As head o f the
Conservative Party, this woman was able to change not only their country, but also significantly affect the global
changes in the late twentieth century worldwide. Can not say that Thatcher was the only founder of modern
British conservatism, but its influence on the development of the political legacy o f conservative principles and
ideas in this is hard to deny .
Throughout the entire time o f Margaret Thatcher as prime minister, the degree of personal popularity in the
country is constantly changing. But even in very difficult time’s British remained high opinion of his Prime
Minister. On the results of their efforts as Prime Minister Thatcher herself said: "I tried all the possibilities open to
the people. Yes, I want everyone to become a capitalist, I want each person had his property - whether it is a piece
o f land, own house, invested in any enterprise funds. The current level of democracy and prosperity could not be
achieved without broad freedoms, such as freedom to open their own business, even if there is some limitation. It
seems to me we are now with our prospering freedoms, including freedom o f the business and start to compete.
As in sports, the main competition is not how fast you run, and how fast your opponent is running."
Margaret Thatcher became the first woman prime minister in British history. Her way to the top o f the political
was long, but the main factor that Thatcher became prime minister - a distrust of the people to the end o f the
current 1970 situation in the government and progressive views Margaret which will surely find sympathy with
the people and provided her majority . Taking the post of prime minister, Margaret Thatcher began to take
active steps to reform the country in order to fully "get rid of the socialist ideas and attitudes." Were conducted for
this social (reducing the role of trade unions and support for the unemployed) as well as economic (privatization,
advanced tax) reform. In foreign policy, led by Margaret tough and demanding negotiations on the EU, and has
established relations with the US and the USSR. Thatcher authority increased after the Falklands conflict with
Argentina, which Britain won. Margaret Thatcher was forced to resign due to the changed situation in the country,
and also because o f the increasingly growing distrust of the government and its policies.
After retiring from politics, Margaret wrote several autobiographical books, and also established her own
foundation. After retiring from the post o f prime minister, Margaret Thatcher for two years was a member of the
House of Commons from Finchley. In 1992, at age 66, she decided to leave the British Parliament that in her
opinion gave her the opportunity to more openly express their opinion on certain events.
After retiring from the House o f Commons, Thatcher became the first former Prime Minister o f Great Britain
established a fund. In 2005, due to financial difficulties it was closed. Thatcher wrote two volumes o f memoirs:
«The Downing Street Years» (1993) and «The Path to Power» (1995). In the period from 1993 to 2000, Thatcher
was honorary rector o f the College o f William and Mary in the American state o f Virginia, and from 1992 to 1999
- Chancellor o f the University o f Buckingham (UK's first private university established it in 1975). In March
2002, Thatcher released the book " Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World," which she dedicated to Ronald
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Reagan (the book was published also in Russian). It Margaret expressed its position on a number of international
political events and processes . She claimed that the Middle East will be no peace as long as there is no toppled
Saddam Hussein; wrote about the need for Israel to sacrifice territory for peace, utopian European Union.
According to her, Britain needs to renegotiate the terms o f its membership in the EU, or even leave the integrative
education, joining NAFTA .
June 11, 2004 Thatcher visited the funeral of Ronald Reagan. Due to health problems has been previously
made a video of her funeral oration. Then Thatcher with Reagan's entourage went to California, where they visited
the memorial service and interment ceremony at Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
Its 80th anniversary Margaret celebrated October 13, 2005 in a London hotel Mandarin Oriental Hotel among
the guests: Elizabeth II, the Duke o f Edinburgh, Alexander Kent and Tony Blair. Geoffrey Howe, who was also
present at the ceremony, said that "it is a triumph transformed not just one, as both parties, so when Labor returned
to power, most of the principles o f Thatcherism was accepted as a reality."
Nicknamed the "Iron Lady" Margaret Thatcher is obliged to Soviet journalists. In January 1976, Thatcher
made a sharp criticism of the USSR: " Russian tuned to world domination ... They chose guns instead of butter,
while for us, almost everything else is more important than guns." Military Observer newspaper "Red Star" Yuri
Gavrilov’s article from December 24, 1976 in response to the opposition leader called the "iron lady", and British
journalists later translated it as iron lady. And it should be noted that throughout her political career Thatcher
proved that nickname was very accurate.
Despite the rigidity in politics, it was she who helped mitigate the West's relationship to the Soviet Union. In
1984, taking in London had not yet general secretaty and Politburo member Mikhail Gorbachev, Thatcher saw in
him not only a good company but also a new quality policy . And I was right - a few months later Gorbachev
became General Secretary began restructuring. "Never, with whom I had such a long conversation," - she said in
an interview. First contact allowed her to then begin a trusting relationship with the Soviet leader. And then
transfer it to the trust and the Soviet- American relations. Most accurately the role o f "Iron Lady" at the end o f the
Cold War has identified no less hard master o f world politics, the former U.S. Secretary o f State Henry Kissinger
said: "For the U.S. it was a reliable and strong ally. During the last years o f the Cold War, it was the first or one of
the first leaders of the allies, who realized the opportunity the Cold War, recognizing the flexibility that
Gorbachev gave the Soviet policy" .
"Iron Lady", Baroness Thatcher, the first female prime minister in British history, held this post more than
anyone in modem Europe (1979 to 1990), marked a whole era, largely determining the direction o f the UK for
many years. Unique - almost everything what she was doing in politics. Courage and sometimes bordering on
obstinacy confidence to push it on the actions and decisions that even colleagues seemed madness , but which
gave her the right to have to become a part o f world history. It is the first Western politicians could see the young
reformer Mikhail Gorbachev's future and said the West that it can and should be dealt with. She said the first and
the end of the Cold War.
Thatcher, in fact, became the first woman in the politics of the 20th century, which has turned the very idea of
politics as a sphere o f total control men. In 1990, Margaret Thatcher received the Order "For Merit", and June 26,
1992 Britain's Queen Elizabeth II granted her the title of Baroness Kentevenskoy (place in her home county of
Lincolnshire). Then Thatcher became a lifelong member o f the House of Lords, and remained in force long
enough politician. In recent years, health and age, becoming less Baroness Thatcher allowed to participate in
public life. She has written two volumes o f memoirs. Nevertheless, she continued to appear from time to time in
public, always elegant, with its mascot, and who became the hallmark purse. So, in late May 2010, she attended
the inauguration o f the new session of the British Parliament with the participation o f Queen Elizabeth П. But in
2012, she missed the gala dinner at Downing Street to celebrate the 60th anniversary o f the reign of Queen.
Thatcher died in the early morning o f April 8, 2013 at the age o f 87 at the "Ritz" in central London, where she
live'd after the end o f 2012 she was discharged from the hospital. Cause o f death was a stroke. The funeral service
was held at St Paul's Cathedral in London with military honors. Back in 2005, Thatcher was a detailed plan for
their funerals, but the preparation for it was conducted from 2007 - all activities, which involved the queen
planned in advance. At her funeral, according to plan, "iron lady" wanted to see Queen Elizabeth II, the royal
family, as well as major political figures o f the reign o f Margaret Thatcher, including former Soviet President
Mikhail Gorbachev. According to the last will o f Thatcher Orchestra performed selected works by the English
composer Edward Elgar. After the service cremation and the ashes, according to the will of the deceased, was
buried next to her husband Denis in the cemetery o f the military hospital o f London's Chelsea .
The funeral was held April 17 and cost about £ 6 million. For supporters o f Thatcher she remains a political
figure who was able to rebuild the British economy, cause a significant blow to the unions and restore the image
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o f Britain as a world power. During her premiership from 7 to 25% increase in the number of British citizens who
owned shares; more than one million families have purchased homes, formerly owned by municipal councils,
which increased the number o f homeowners with 55 to 67%. Total personal wealth rose by 80%. Victory in the
Falklands War and a close alliance with the United States are also considered one o f its major achievements. In
the same time period o f Thatcher's premiership was marked by high unemployment, population and regular
strikes. In the matter o f unemployment, most critics blame its economic policy, which was strongly influenced by
the ideas of monetarism. This problem, in turn, has led to the spread of drug addiction and family divorce.
Speaking in April 2009 in Scotland, on the eve o f her thirty-year anniversary o f the election as Prime Minister,
Thatcher insisted that does not regret his actions during the premiership, including the issue of the introduction of
the poll tax and non- subsidizing" outdated industry whose markets were ih decline. "Thatcher's premiership was
the longest in the twentieth century , from the time of Salisbury ( ( 1885,1886-1892 and 1895-1902 ) and the
longest continuous stay in office since the time of Lord Liverpool (1812-1827).
Margaret Thatcher's personality is mentioned in a number of artistic works, including literaiy texts, television
programs, documentaries and feature films, theater, musical compositions. In the docudrama "The Falklands
Play", released in 2002 on the British television channel BBC4, the role o f the British prime minister played by
actress Patricia Hodge, and "Margaret Thatcher: The Long Walk to Finchley" - Andrea Riseborough. In addition,
Thatcher became the protagonist in films such as "Margaret" (2009; role performed by Lindsay Duncan and "Iron
Lady" (2011; role performed by Meryl Streep). Thatcher for her role in the last film Meryl Streep became the
owner of the eighth prize figurines "Golden Globe", the second BAFTA Award statuettes and got the third"
Lewis R. Margaret Thatcher: A personal and political biography. - L„ 1975.
2 Жизнь замечательных людей. Маргарэт Тэтчер. - Минск, 1998.
3 Перегрудов С.П. Маргарэт Тэтчер. //Вопросы истории. 1988. -№10.
4 Jenkins P. Mrs. Thatchtr s Revolution. - London, 1987.
5 Kavanagh D. Thatcherism and British Politics. - Oxford, 1987.
6 The British Prime Minister. - London, 1985.
7 The Politics o f Thatcherism. - London, 1984.
8 Young H., SlomanA. The Thatcherism Phenomenon. - London, 1986.
Маргарет Тэтчер Ұлыбританияның тарихында аса жогары және маңызды орын алады. Ол 1979-1990 жж.
аралыгында р а к уақыт Ұлыбританияның премьер-министрі болган. Маргарет Тэтчер Ұлыбританияда біркатар
консервативтік шарапар, әлеуметтік және экономикалык реформалар жүргізді. Аз уақыт ішінде Кеңес Одагы басшы-
ларына сын айтқаны үшін оны «Темір ханым» деп атады. Қазіргі таңда Маргарет Тэтчердің өмірі мен қызметі көпте-
ген гылыми, саяси, тарихи зертгеулерде орын алды.
казіргі заман тарихы, саясат, Ұлыбритания, саяси қызметкер, саяси партия, экономика, әлеуметгік
реформалар, экономикалык реформалар, мәдениет
Резюме. В истории Великобритании Маргарет Тэтчер занимает высокое и особое место. Она была премьер-
министром Великобритании на протяжении долгового времени в 1979-1990 гг. Маргарет Тэтчер провела в
Великобритании ряд консервативных мер, социальных и экономических реформ. Ее назвали «железной леди» за
резкую критику советского руководства. Сегодня жизнь и деятельность Маргарет Тэтчер получила отражение в
многочисленных научно-политических, исторических исследованиях.
новейшая история, политика, Великобритания, политический деятель, политическая партия,
экономика, социальные реформы, экономические реформы, культура
The Trojan War was one of the most significant events in their history according opinions of the ancient Greeks. Ancient
historians believed that it occurred around the turn of ХІП-ХІІ centuries BC and started from it a new "Trojan" era: achieving
to a higher level of culture associated with life in the cities of tribes inhabited the Balkan Greece.
history, war, the myth, the Greeks, the god, the enemy ship, love, war, siege
Numerous Greek myths, combined later in the cycle of legends - kiklicheskie poem told about the campaign
against the Achaean Greek city o f Troy, located in the northwestern part of the peninsula o f Asia Minor - Troas
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. The epic poem "The Iliad" was the best respected for the Greeks attributed to the great Greek poet Homer
who lived in the VIII century BC. It tells the story o f one o f the final episodes - the tenth year o f the siege of Troy-
Ilion - so named in the poem that the Asia Minor city .
What do ancient legends tell o f the Trojan War? It began at the will and wine o f the gods. At the wedding of
Thessalian hero Peleus and the sea goddess Thetis all the gods were invited except Erid-the goddess of discord.
Angry goddess decided to take revenge and threw a golden apple to feasting gods with the inscription "Beautiful".
Hera, Athena and Aphrodite -three Olympic goddess argued which of them it was intended. Zeus commanded
Paris the young son of the Trojan king Priam to judge goddesses. The goddess appeared before Paris on Mount
Ida, near Troy, where the prince passed herds, and each tried to seduce him gifts. Paris chose the love of Helen
offered by Aphrodite to him, the most beautiful o f mortal women, and handed a golden apple to the goddess of
love. Elena, the daughter o f Zeus and Leda, was the wife o f Spartan King Menelaus. Paris, which was the guest in
the house of Menelaus took advantage of his absence and with the help of Aphrodite persuaded Helen to leave her
husband and go with him to Troy. Fugitives brought with them slaves and treasures o f the royal house. The myths
tell us differently about how Paris and Helen having gotten to Troy . According to one version, three days later
they arrived safely in Paris’ hometown. On the other, the goddess Hera, hostelling to Paris, raised a storm at sea,
his ship drifted to the shores o f Phoenicia, and only after a long time finally fugitives arrived in Troy. There is
another option: Zeus (or Hera) replaced Elena ghost, who took Paris. The very sarhe Helen was in Egypt during
the Trojan War under the protection of a wise elder Proteus. But this - late version o f the myth, the Homeric epic
does not know it.
Trojan prince committed a serious crime - violated the law of hospitality and so incurred the hometown of a
terrible disaster. Outraged Menelaus with his brother, the powerful king o f Mycenae Agamemnon, gathered a
large army to return adulterous wife and stolen treasures. All fiances have come on appeal o f brothers who wooed
once Elena and gave the oath to defend her honor. Noble Achaean heroes and kings: Odysseus, Diomedes,
Protesilaus, Ajax Telamonid and Ajax Oilid, Philoctetes, wise old Nestor and many others led their squads. And
Achilles participated in the campaign, son o f Peleus and Thetis, the most valiant and powerful of heroes.
According to the prediction o f the gods the Greeks could not prevail against Troy without his help. As the clever
and cunning Odysseus could to persuade Achilles to take part in the campaign, although that he had been
predicted that he would die under the walls o f Troy. Agamemnon was elected as the leader of the whole army as
the most powerful ruler of the Achaean states.
Numbering thousand ships the Greek fleet gathered in Aulile, in Boeotia harbor. To ensure fleet prosperous
voyage to the shores o f Asia Minor, Agamemnon sacrificed to the goddess Artemis his daughter Iphigenia.
Reaching Troas, the Greeks tried to get Elena and treasures peacefully. Messengers were gone to Troy tested
diplomat Odysseus and Menelaus - offended spouse. The Trojans were refused and began the long and tragic war
for both sides. Gods took part also into this war. Hera and Athena helped Achaeans, Aphrodite and Apollo -
fortified camp on the beach near their ships, began to ravage the neighborhood of the city and attack the Trojans
allies. In the tenth year o f the siege was a dramatic event which entailed serious setbacks Achaeans in battle with
the defenders of Troy. Agamemnon insulted Achilles away from his captive Briseis, and one, being angry, refused
to go out on the battlefield. No amount of persuasion could convince Achilles to leave the anger and take up arms.
The Trojans took advantage of the inaction of the brave and strong enemies and went on the offensive, led by the
eldest son o f King Priam, Hector. The king himself was old and could not take part in the war. Helped the Trojans
and general fatigue Achaean troops already ten years unsuccessfully besieged Troy. When Agamemnon, checking
the morale of soldiers pretended proposed to end the war and return home, the Achaeans proposal met with
delight and rushed to their ships. Only decisive action Odysseus stopped soldiers and saved the day,
Trojans broke into the Achaean camp and was almost burned their ships. The closest friend o f Achilles,
Patroclus, begged the hero to give him his armor and chariot and rushed to the aid o f the Greek army. Patroclus
stopped the onslaught o f the Trojans but he died at the hands of Hector. Death o f a friend causes Achilles to forget
about the offense. Thirst for revenge inspires him. In a duel with Trojan hero Achilles killed Hector. Amazons
came to the help Trojans. Achilles kills their leader Penfesileyu but he soon died as it was predicted from the
arrow of Paris, directed by the god Apollo. Thetis - Mother’s Achilles, trying to make her son invulnerable,
dipped him in the water o f the underground river Styx. She held Achilles by the heel, which remained the only
vulnerable spot on his body. God Apollo knew where to direct the arrow o f Paris. This episode poem humanity
obligates an expression "Achilles heel" .
After the death o f Achilles amongAchaeans began dispute over possession o f his armor. They get to the
Odyssey, and insulted with this outcome, Telamonid Ajax committed suicide.
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Decisive turning point in the war occurs after arrival in Achaean camp hero Philoctetes from Lemnos Island
and Achilles’ son Neoptolemus. Philoctetes kills Paris, and Neoptolemus - ally Trojans Mysians Evrinila. Left
without leaders, the Trojans do not dare to go to battle in the open field. But the mighty walls of Troy reliably
protect its inhabitants. Then by Proposition Odyssey Achaeans decided to take the city cunning. Was built a huge
wooden horse, hidden inside a select band o f soldiers. The rest o f the troops to convince the Trojans, if Achaeans
go home, bum their camp and sailed on ships off the coast o f Troas. In fact, the Achaean ships took refuge near
the shore, near the island o f Tenedos.
Surprised Trojans gathered around abandoned wooden monster. Some began offering to import horse into the
city. Priest Laocoon, warning about the treachery o f the enemy, he exclaimed: "Beware of danaicess (Greek)
bearing gifts!" (This phrase eventually became airborne too). But a speece o f priest did not convince his
countrymen and they have imported wooden horse into the city as a gift from the goddess Athena. At night hiding
in the belly o f the horse soldiers went outside and opened the gates. Secretly returned Achaeans rushed into town
and started beating caught unawares residents. Menelaus with a sword in hand looked for his unfaithful wife but
seeing the beautiful Helen was not able to kill her. The entire male population of Troy died, except Aeneas, son of
Anchises and Aphrodite, received from the gods commanded to flee from the captured city and revive his fame
elsewhere. Women of Troy waited at least woeful fate: they all became captives and slaves of winners. The town
was destroyed in a fire.
After the death o f Troy in the Achaean camp conflicts began. Ajax Oilid incurred on the Greek fleet the wrath
of the goddess Athena, and she sent a terrible storm, during which many ships sunk. Storm brought Menelaus and
Odysseus in distant countries. Wanderings o f Odysseus after the Trojan War were sung in the second poem of
Homer - "Odyssey". It also described the return o f Menelaus and Helen in Sparta. Epic favorably refers to this
beautiful woman as everything that happened to her was the will o f the gods, she could not resist. The leader o f
the Achaean Agamemnon after returning home was killed with his satellites by his wife Clytemnestra, not just her
husband the death o f daughter Iphigenia. So, campaign against Troy for the Achaeans did not triumphantly end.
As already mentioned, the ancient Greeks had no doubt the historical reality o f the Trojan War. Even such
critical thinking and take nothing for granted Greek historian as Thucydides , was convinced that described in the
poem ten-year siege o f Troy - a historical fact, only embellished poet. Indeed, the poem is veiy little fairy-tale
fantasy . If you isolate it from the scenes involving the gods, and that makes Thucydides, the story would look
quite authentic. Individual parts o f the poem, such as "catalog o f ships" or list o f Achaean troops under the walls
of Troy were written like a true chronicle.
European historiography of modem times otherwise reacted to the Greek myths. It saw in them only legends
and fairy tales, not enclosing the real information. Historians ХУПІ-ХІХ centuries were convinced that no
campaign Greeks against Troy was not and that the heroes of the poem - the mythical rather than historical
figures. Heinrich Schliemann was the only Europeans who believed epic proved. He was not a professional
scientist, and for his Achilles, Agamemnon, Odysseus and Helen were wonderful human beings, and the drama
that has been unfolding under the walls o f Troy, he experienced the events of his own life. Schliemann many
years dreamed o f finding the legendary city.
Becoming a very rich man, in 1871, he starts digging Hissarlik hill in the north- western part of Asia Minor,
defining it as the location o f ancient Troy. While Schliemann guided by descriptions o f the city of Priam, the data
in the poem. Luck awaited him: hill hid the ruins, not one, and the whole nine urban settlements, successive for at
least twenty centuries - two or three millennia.
Described in the poem Troy Schliemann found in a settlement located in the second layer from the bottom.
Here he found, in his opinion, Skeyskie gate, tower, from which Elena with Trojan elders observed the battles, the
palace of Priam and even treasures - "Treasure of Priam": gorgeous gold and silver jewelry.
Then, following the poem, Heinrich Schliemann conducted excavations in the "gold - heavy" Mykonos. In one
of the royal graves found there rested - Schliemann for this there was no doubt - the remains o f Agamemnon and
his companions , studded with golden ornaments; face covered golden mask of Agamemnon. Among the many
and rich burial offerings excellent weapon was found worthy of mighty heroes.
Opening o f Heinrich Schliemann shocked world public. There was no doubt that the poem o f Homer contains
information about the events taking place and did their real heroes. Myths do not lie they have the truth about the
distant past. Schliemann's success inspired many archaeologists. Englishman Arthur Evans went to Crete to search
the residence o f the mythical King Minos and found a beautiful palace o f the Minotaur. In 1939, American
archaeologist Carl Blegen opened a "gritty" Pylos, the habitat of the wise old man Nestor on the west coast of the
Peloponnese. Again triumphed correct geographical indications poem. But the strange thing: the number o f
discoveries increased, and the situation with the Trojan War and Troy itself becoming incomprehensible. Already