Schliemann during the excavation began experiencing some anxiety . When Gissartyksky on the hill and came
to Mycenae archaeological professionals, they found that the city accepted Schliemann in Troy, existed for a
thousand years before the Trojan War. Graves at Mycenae is stored the remains o f people who lived a few
centuries earlier heroes o f the poem. After the initial enthusiasm and excitement was the turn of a new, even more
turmoil. It turned out that Schliemann discovered a new world, a previously unknown civilization, about which
nothing is known even by the ancient Greeks. This world was completely different to what was told myths and
Rejecting the unconditional trust in the mythological basis, some historians nevertheless continue to believe
that because it is still possible to extract the seeds o f truth. Indeed, the author o f the poem was really knows the
location of the most important political centers of Achaean Greece II millennium BC. Many o f those described in
the poem o f domestic and military realities in detail coincide with archaeological finds. For example , found by
Schliemann at Mycenae "Cup o f Nestor"; "Helm of the Boar Tusk" owned, as stated in the "Iliad", the Cretan hero
Merion; tower-like shield covering the whole body of the hero; Finally, the chariots, which were unknown to
classical Greece. So, in the oral tradition of the people preserved the memory o f times past and events, and
recorded her poem. Obviously, pre- stigshie prosperity at the turn of ХПІ-ХІІ centuries BC. State - Achaean
Greeks sought to make the combined forces of large military expeditions to the arfa o f Asia Minor. One of them
was the siege o f Troy. Firmly secure its influence in Troas Achaeans could not even destroy Troy. Their own
world was threatened with invasion o f the barbarians, and had to think about is safety, not about conquest .
But skeptics argue that these examples do not prove anything. Realities of Mycenaean culture are part of the
culture Achaean Greece, present in the poems as a distant echo of the poet and completely unfamiliar era. He has
no idea how to act chariots, the main striking force in the battle o f the Mycenaean Greece. For the author it is just
a vehicle: the hero rides in a chariot to the place o f the fight, and then fight on foot. Description of the royal
palaces in the poem "The Odyssey" shows that the author knows nothing about the water supply, nor o f the
frescoes decorating the walls o f the Mycenaean palaces, nor about writing, disappeared with the death o f the
Achaean culture. Create epic poems separated from the real events four or five centuries. Until that time, the tales
of the Trojan War - aedami singers were passed from generation to generation by orally. Each storyteller and each
new generation have made them their understanding of the events and the characters' actions. Thus, the
accumulated error, there were new plot details, significantly distorts the original meaning. One event, absorbing
and acquiring other poetic details gradually could turn into a grand march Greek Achaeans against Troy, which
could not be had. Moreover, archaeological finds made on the hill Hissarlik, do not prove that a settlement is
found exactly Troy.
However, to deny the existence o f the city o f Troy, somewhere in the north- western district of Asia Minor
impossible. Documents from the archives o f the Hittite kings suggest that the Hittites knew and the city o f Troy,
and the city of Ilion (in Hittite version "Truisa" and "Wilusa"), but, apparently, as two different, located in the
neighborhood o f the city, and not one under the double name, as in the poem. The Hittites also knew Ahhiyawa
country, a powerful state with to which they competed for dominance over these cities. Scientists believe that
Ahhiyawa - a country o f the Achaeans, but it is not clear where it was. Maybe it is the western part of Asia Minor,
or next to her islands, or the entire Balkan Greece. Between the Hittite power and Ahhiyawa conflict was over the
city of Ilion, but it was settled by peaceful way. Documents do not tell about any large-scale military conflict
between the Achaeans and Troy Hittite.
What conclusion can be drawn by comparing the data from the archives o f the Hittite kings and poetic
narrative of the expedition against Troy? Some connection between them can be traced, but it is very unclear as
there is no exact match. Apparently, oral folklore underlying the poem, together events from different times were
pressed: a failed attempt Greek Achaeans to subdue Troas region (it is traced through the tragic fate of the heroes
of the Achaeans after the capture o f Troy) and the destruction of the city o f Ilion and Troy as a result of invasions
of so-called "sea Peoples" which shook the entire ancient Mediterranean world at the end o f the XII century BC.
1 Кравчук А. Троянская война: Миф и история = Wojna Trojanska. Mil i Historia, 1985 /Александр Кравчук/ Пер. с
польск. Д.С. Гальпериной; Послесл. Л.С. Клейна. - М.: Наука, Главная редакция восточной литературы, 1991.
2 Гомер. Илиада. Перевод Н.И Гнедича. - Ленинград: Наука, 1990.
3 Апьтман М.С. Греческая мифология. -Л ., 1937.
4 Грейвс Р. Мифы древней Греции. / / Пер. К.Лукьяненко. - М., 1992.
5 Лосев А. Ф. Мифология греков и римлян. - М., 1996.
6 Тахо-Годи А. А. Греческая мифология. - М., 1983.
7 Дарет Фригийский. История о разрушении Трои. - СПб.: Алетейя, 1997.
ык тарихшылар б^л соғысты б.э.д. ХІІІ-ХІІ ғғ. шамасында болды деп есептейді, және осыдан жаңа - «троялык»
эраны бастады, қала өміріне байланысты, Балкан түбегіңдегі Грецияны мекендеген тайпалардың мэдениеггің жоғар-
ғы деңгейіне жеткендігін көрсетгі.
Негізгі сөздер: тарих, соғыс, ацыз, эллиндықгар, құдай, жау, кеме, махаббат, шайқас, қоршау
Резюме. Троянская война, по мнению древних греков, была одним из самых значительных событий их истории.
Античные историки считали, что она произошла примерно на рубеже ХІІІ-ХІІ вв. до н.э., и начинали с неё новую -
"троянскую" эру: восхождение населявших Балканскую Грецию племён к более высокому уровню культуры, связан
ному с жизнью в городах.
Ключевые слова: история, война, миф, эллины, бог, враг, корабль, любовь, битва, осада
УДК 959 (560)
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk; Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha
(1881 - 10
- Ottoman and Turkish reformer,
founder of the modern Turkish state, the first president of the Turkish Republic. As President of the Republic who is elected to
the post every four years as well as chairman of irremovable they created the Republican People's Party, Mustafa Kemal
Ataturk in Turkey gained unquestioned authority and dictatorial powers. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is on the list of
Keywords: reformer, politician, statesman, military leader
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was the founder of the Turkish Republic, who spent the radical political, economic
and social reforms to transform the Ottoman Empire into a modem secular state. Kemalism was the official
ideology of the Turkish Republic, based on the six principles of the so-called six arrows enshrined in the
constitution o f 1937.
Six arrows - it republicanism (ideal constitutional democratic republic as an alternative to the absolute
monarchy of the Ottoman), nationalism as a base mode, nationality (the fight against class inequality and class
privilege), the secular nature o f the state and the separation of state and religion, statism, or statism (the
construction o f mixed - state market economy under the leadership o f the state), reformism (course on
Westernization and the fight against remnants of traditional society) .
Formation of the modem state o f Turkey not only reflected the social changes in the country (strengthening the
position of the intelligentsia and the bureaucracy), but was the result of global processes (increasing power o f the
Western powers) . Vividly expressed this idea, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who thinks that Turkey should follow
"to the West in spite of the West." That was the only way to survive in the world o f modem civilization. The
cornerstone of the concept o f the modem state is gradually becoming republicanism characterized by Ataturk as a
moral order, promoting the independence of the country's development. Mustafa Kemal was bom in Salonika in
Greece, on the territory o f Macedonia. At the time the area was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. His father was
a middle-ranking customs official, his mother - a peasant. After a difficult childhood spent because of the early
death of his father in poverty, the boy entered the state military school, then in the Higher Military School in 1889
and finally to the Ottoman Military Academy in Istanbul. Even at school, for their achievements in teaching, his
second name was Kemal (valuable, perfect). In 1905 he graduated from the General Staff Academy in Istanbul,
after which he was sent to serve as a captain in Damascus. The Academy, in addition to military discipline, Kemal
independently studied the works o f various philosophers and thinkers such as Rousseau, Voltaire, Hobbes.
At age 20, Mustafa Kemal was sent to the Higher Military School of the General Staff. Selected Kemal
military profession was o f great importance for its overall political development. Economic stagnation, political
powerlessness, the dominance o f foreign capital in expansion mode engendered progressive youth, especially
students of military schools, the desire to find a way out of the situation. Penetrated in schools in the West if not
revolutionary, then, in any case, liberal ideas in conjunction with the huge influence o f Turkish educators o f the
nineteenth century. Progressive writers and poets Ibrahim Shinas, Namik Kemal, Ziya Pasha, Tevfik Fikret and
others developed among student youth patriotism and national identity. Important role in this process was played
by the fact that in feudal Turkish army was the only consistently central part o f the state body. Military
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intellectuals first entered as exponent of interests’ still nascent national bourgeoisie. Military representatives of the
intelligentsia were the first participants in underground circles, subsequently merged with young Turkish secret
organization "Union and Progress".
During training Kemal and his friends founded a secret society "Watan". "Watan" - a Turkish word of Arabic
origin which can be translated as "homeland", "place of birth" or "place of residence". Society characterized by a
Kemal, failing to reach an understanding with other members of society, left the "Watan" and joined the
Committee o f Union and Progress, who has collaborated with the movement o f the Young Turks (Turkish
bourgeois revolutionary movement, puts the problem o f replacing the constitutional order o f the sultan's
autocracy). Kemal was personally acquainted with many o f the key figures in the Young Turks movement, but
did not participate in a coup in 1908. Independent position Kemal and his popularity in the army harassed top
Young Turks. In an effort to somehow alienate him from the government and at the same time reward for their
help in the restoration o f the Young Turk government, government seconded his summer 1909 in France. France
made a huge impression on the young officer, contributed to his desire to adopt the best achievements of the West
Ottoman Empire in its present form, and at the same time convinced o f the effectiveness of the guerrilla
movement. April 23, 1920 with the opening o f the Grand National Assembly o f Turkey (GNAT) was made the
next and very important step towards the establishment of the Turkish Republic. As Speaker o f Parliament and the
Prime Minister Mustafa Kemal was elected, the Great National Assembly adopted and started to implement laws
aimed at the successful completion o f the National Liberation War. August 5, 1921 GNAT Kemal appointed
supreme commander with unlimited powers.But November 1, 1922 Great National Assembly passed a law on the
separation o f secular and religious power from the liquidation of the sultanate. Mehmed VI fled abroad. It was a
historic victory over the feudal reaction. Kemal publicly claimed that objective events have led the people to
understand the need for deposition of the sultanate. But now we must go further, to turn Turkey into a modem
country and move in step with civilization. [4, pp. 70]. Subsequent legislation that fully completed the
transformation of the state system, has fallen to the share o f the second Majlis, where the right-wing opposition
was much weaker. October 29, 1923 following the ratification o f the Treaty o f Lausanne, Turkey Majlis
proclaimed republic, and March 3,1924 was abolished the caliphate.
Understanding the principle o f national sovereignty Kemal included and a new interpretation of the Turkish
national idea. Kemal nationalism was more progressive than the general Muslim Ottaman and "new Ottoman"
Young Turks or Turkism. Kemal clearly limited Turkism from close to it in its social roots, but in fact, anti
national doctrine o f pan-Turkism. In understanding Kemal Turkism is - it is nothing like Turkish nationalism
within the borders o f Turkey, but it was purely Turkish different from Ottoman or Islamic. "Nation, - he said -
changed the age-old forms and even there is a relationship established between the people belonging to it ... A
nation united their sons bonds not religious doctrine, and belonging to the Turkish nationality" [5, pp. 19].
Turkey in the 20-30-ies of XX century embarked on a renovation. There have been significant bourgeois
reforms: the establishment o f a republican system, the elimination of the Caliphate, the abolition of sharia courts,
cancellation ashara reform alphabet. In 1924, there was the adoption of the Constitution o f the Turkish Republic.
These reforms have largely determined the further development of the Turkish state. But the question arises: can
we call a change in Turkey in the 20-3Os o f the modernization of the country? If so, how this upgrade was
correlated with the ideology o f Kemalism and what this relationship is manifested? The question is posed in the
historiography of attention has not been paid that causes the relevance of the chosen topic. Often, however, these
works examine various aspects o f the modernization process in Turkey. Such works are distinguished by the fact
that their authors have considered a particular problem, but apart from modernization in other spheres o f life of
Turkish society and the state. As an example, you can highlight the work of N.G. Kireyev . In this paper, the
author analyzes the formation of policy statism and its impact on the course and character o f Turkish
modernization in the economy. But, as mentioned above, the author in his analysis only affects economic policy,
leaving outside o f issues o f national cultural and political reform. These issues have been addressed to some
extent by other researchers. So Salih Polat  examines in detail the processes o f modernization in the cultural
sphere, the establishment and development o f secularism in Turkey. In Soviet historiography is also singled out
the work of E.Y. Gasanov , in which we study the ideology of nationalism and its impact on the development
First we need to consider the term "modernization" and explain its understanding o f Mustafa Kemal Ataturk,
the main initiator o f reforms. Importantly, Mustafa Kemal was based on the thoughts and ideas o f Ziya Huck Alp,
---------------- -------------- ---------------- ----------------- --------------- ---------------- ---------------------------------- —
a Turkish sociologist, former at the time o f the Young Turk movement ideologue, and in fact the creator of the
period o f Ataturk principles o f Kemalism. So, modernization, according to "SES" , this change, improvement,
meets modern requirements. Need to find out whether this is the understanding o f the term was in Turkey, in
Mustafa Kemal emphasized in an interview with the newspaper "Le Matin" in 1922 that "the Turkish
democracy, although following the path initiated by the French Revolution, with its developed, its inherent
characteristics. For every nation conducts its reformation according to the requirements of the laws and
corresponding own society, according to the domestic situation and the situation, according to the requirements of
caste system, the ideal o f modern society was undoubtedly the Europe and European society. If we consider the
reforms in Turkey, particularly in the areas o f culture and life, religion, then we can talk about their pro-European
orientation. And as modernization - this improvement, meeting modem requirements, the processes of
Europeanization, which took place in the Turkish Republic, and can be called modernization.
Despite some identity transformations in Turkey still sees some correlation with the ideas o f Ataturk Great
French Revolution. Undoubtedly, Ataturk understood that the processes o f modernization in Europe unfolded
folly only after the proclamation of the Declaration of 1789 Recognition o f public rights and freedoms and served
as the starting point for the development o f Europe, so the first serious step towards the modernization o f the
country, undertaken by Kemal was the adoption o f the constitution in 1924. This document included 105 articles.
Article 70 established such public rights and freedoms that are typical o f bourgeois law as the right and freedom
of contract, transportation, employment, acquisition and possession.
The definition of "Kemalism" in various research sounds differently, however, in most of the work is
considered as Kemalism system principles. Basic principles o f Kemalism were enshrined in the Constitution of
the Turkish Republic in the 2nd article. Later, in 1931, at the Ш Congress of the NPF, they have turned to the six
principles of the existence and activities o f the ruling Republican People's Party. She was proclaimed a republic,
ethnic, folk, statist, secular and revolutionary. Under each principle implies a certain theoretical position. Mustafa
Kemal also considered it necessary to translate the Koran into Turkish." Turks believe in the book - he said - but
did not understand what it refers. He must be aware that he is looking at it".
Mustafa Kemal put forward and carried out in 1924 the radical policy of secularism. This policy has reduced to
zero the influence of religion on the state and largely reduced its public role.
In 1925 the Council of Ministers decided to close the tekke (dervish monastery) and the tomb o f (tomb) as well
as to ban the wearing of the fez and other medieval hats and clothes and enter the European hats and clothing. In
1926, the Turkish Grand National Assembly adopted a civil code (№743). In March o f the same year he passed
the law on the abolition o f Sharia (religious) courts and introduced secular ju stice, and also approved the Criminal
Code (developed on the basis o f Italian). In 1934, the Great National Assembly passed a law on the introduction
of surnames. Before the Turks had only names. This law also abolished the old titles and forms o f address: Pasha
Bey Effendi. November 24, 1934, Mustafa Kemal Pasha received from GNAT name Ataturk ("Father of the
Turks"). According to another law passed by the Majlis December 17, 1934, the name o f Ataturk, except Mustafa
Kemal Pasha, nobody had the right to wear. Introduction names facilitated the implementation of the civil office,
eliminates confusion with similar names.
In early December 1934 the Majlis passed a law granting women the right to elect and be elected to the Majlis.
Thus, Turkish women were formally equal rights with men. As a result o f these changes on the Great National
Assembly elections in February 1935, 17 women were elected (of 399 members).The next step was to be the
consolidation o f the Turkish nation as a modem state should be established on a national basis.
Thus, the main factor in consolidating the Turkish Republic was to be the introduction of the Turkish language
based on Latin script. Issued a decree that in the Turkish Republic will be replaced by the Arabic alphabet based
on Latin Turkish; will develop a new grammar of Turkish language, based on this alphabet; organized
commission on the drafting of the alphabet and grammar and given fifteen deadline for the final transition to the
Has been conducted gradually but steadily replacing "Ottoman" Turkish language in all spheres of state and
public life. Moreover, the Turkish language has been subjected to "cleaning" o f many Arabic and Persian words;
instead introduced the ancient Turkic words o f ancient texts - Orkhon, Uighur - or artificially created new ones,
based on Turkic roots. This movement was headed by Kemal Ataturk. On his initiative, was established the
Turkish Linguistic Society as a scientific center for the study and improvement o f the Turkish language. The
result was, in fact, the new Turkish sharply differing from the language even 20's - early 30-ies in which Arabisms
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-Persian and accounted for up to half o f the vocabulary. The new language was introduced into the hard public
education, higher education. On it were written by school and college textbooks. Broadcasting, most journalists
have moved into a new language. Finally cemented it as a Turkish national literature, made a great success in the
30's and 40's, when the Turkish emerged and developed critical realism.
Government agencies had to move to a new alphabet to October 1, 1928, forcing officials to engage
intensively; that many o f them did not like. The same decree comes into force from 1 November 1928 and to the
press. Another problem was related to the dominance o f foreign schools in Turkey's secular education. For the
independent nation-state, this situation was extremely unacceptable, and in the mid 20s begin to form Turkish
schools appear their textbooks, introduced national education students. Thus, we can say that the ideology of
Kemalism was the banner and the theoretical foundation for modernization o f the country and showing the way
for its modernization. However, Turkey's way to the modem European society proved long and arduous, in fact, is
not completed today.
Karpat K.H. Social change and politics in Turkey. Leiden.: Brill,
2 Миллер А. Ф. Турция: актуальные проблемы новой и новейшей истории.