b) Berendeis and their settlements in Hungary, Slovakia, Romania and Bulgaria: Although
followed the Pechenegs and the
Uzes and crossed the Danube to
enter Hungary, the majority of
them perished due to the severe
cold and starvation like the Uzes
[4, p. 11].
While the Berendeis seem to
have acted together with the Uzes
in Kievan Russia, they are
observed to be in alliance with the
Pechenegs in Hungary. However,
the penetration of the Berendeis in
Hungary remained only limited.
independently from, and earlier
than the Pechenegs [4, p. 12].
The name Berendei is observed as Berény, Berencs or Berend in the
Hungarian sources and Hungarian place names. Especially the word “Berend” has
been identified with the name Berendei in the Russian annals ; and this led the
Russian linguists to claim that the name Berény may have derived from the name
Berendi in the Russian chronicles. The most important detail at this point is that
this tribe has two names in Hungary, like also in Russia: In Russia, they were
called the Berendeis and the Berendich; and in Hungary, they were called the
Berénd and Beréncs. Rasovsky states that Berény, Berencs or Berend does not
carry any particular significance [4, p. 33-34].
While we can find information in the Russian annals about the Berendeis in
А.ЯСАУИ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІНІҢ ХАБАРШЫСЫ, №1, 2013 An example of the Hungarian chronicles: the Pictum
Russia, we also find information about the Berendeis in Hungary in the sources of
the Hungarian State, the gramota (documents). In these documents, the Berendeis
are not mentioned by their own names, but generally included within the Turkish
population in Hungary. Especially the documents written at the time of King André
II (1205-1235) contain more information about them [4, p. 50]. The settlements of
the Berendeis are observed fairly often in Hungary. They are located at the eastern
border of Hungary and especially in Slovakia. Regarding the traces of the
Berendeis settlements, it can be concluded that they entered Hungary crossing the
southern part of the Carpathian Mountains and settled at the northern and eastern
borders of Hungary.
Rasovsky has described the settlements of the Berendeis, some of which have
reached our time and show their existence in Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria and
Romania within the course of history, as follows (In his article, Rasovsky has said
the last word in this subject and listed the names of these places in detail. However,
we shall only give some of these names):
The Berendeis have settled between Vag and Moravia in Slovakia and became
an integral part of the defence system of Vag. To give a few examples of the
settlements in Slovakia: Berencsbukócz (in Slovak: Bukovec) in the Myjava region
which has reached our day; and, as we approach Brezová, Berencsváralja (in
Slovak: Podbranc) among the Nitransk villages in the Myavsk region. After
passing these, there is also Berencsróna (in Slovak: Rovensko) at the Senitsk
region [4, p. 25].
Slovak scientists have also researched the roots of the word Berench in Slovak
and suggested the Slavic word “brana” meaning “door” as its origin .
Hungarian scientists also claim that the old Slavic word of brana has passed to the
Hungarian language in the form of borona; the Slovak word of branc was
transformed into barancs in Hungarian; and eventually the Slovak word Berenc turned into Berencs in Hungarian [4, p. 34].
The existence of a Berend village in 1463 is related in the area of Satmar in
the Satmarsk region, westwards from Szinyér-Váralja, around Nagy-Bánya, which
was part of Hungary in the XV century, although it lies in Romania today. In the
vicinity of this place, there was the Berendmező (mező = Hungarian for “field”)
village in 1490, which has become the Berencze (Berenczét) village today. And in
the west of Nagy-Bánya, around Kővárkőlcse within the ancient Satmar region,
eastwards in Besterts-Nasod, there was the village of Berendest or Berenfalia.
South-westwards from here, near Kolozsvár, a village named Berend is mentioned
to have existed between the years 1423-1501. In the Arad County, in Feher-Körös
near Borosjenő, we come across Berendia, which is one of the Valash villages that
stood until today. Southwards from there, in the Hodos fortress in the Temesh and
Krasov regions, the name of the Berendefalva village is mentioned in 1471.
In 1283, near River Nitra, a place called “Berench” was mentioned to exist. It
seems like today’s Berenc Village should have been located in front of the city of
Nitra and on the bank of River Nitra. Also in the vicinity of Toplocany at the
crossing of the Bebrava and Nitritsa regions, a village named Berenc is related in
А.ЯСАУИ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІНІҢ ХАБАРШЫСЫ, №1, 2013
the sources of the year 1244.
A Berente village is also mentioned in 1454 among other Pecheneg
settlements in the Bukov Mountains (within the borders of the Czech Republic
today), on the Barsod region near the Slan (Shayo) River.
Remains of Berendei settlements have been observed around the Pecheneg
tribes near Drava at the southern border of Hungary: mentioned in the records
entered between 1347 and 1493, Berench then belonged to the Domba tribe.
Today, this region has been evacuated north-westwards from Szigetvar.
On the western border, near Zalalővő (north-eastwards), the Berend
settlement took place between the years 1332-1513. There are direct records
indicating that wealthy landlords from the Balaja and Petra Berendeis were in
possession of this area in 1513. Today, this population are named as Börönd. A
place called Beren (d) is mentioned in 1256, which was located a little more
westwards, in the north of Lake Balaton, near the city of Devescer (south-
eastwards), and Bessenyő-Major, the Pecheneg settlement in this area.
Finally, in the Dör region, there is the Berenth settlement mentioned in the
records from 1500.
Besides the above-mentioned Turkic populations, there was also another
population in Hungary located further away from the border areas and inside the
country, living in the comprehensive line of the Pecheneg settlements and in
certain Berendei settlements. They were divided into a few of groups: Fehervar-
Toln or Sarviza, Kemey, Western Körös, Chanad (or more precisely, Arank).
The traces of the Berendei were also observed in the inner parts of Hungary,
where the Pechenegs had settled in Sarviza. Near Hőgyécz in the region of Toln,
there was the terra Berencz (1305); while Berenthe recorded in 1325-1487 took
place at the northern part of the Fehervar area, in the Al- and Fel-Csut regions. In
these regions, great families were named Berencze or Berentei [4, p. 35-45].
In his study, Rasovksy has listed the people with the names Berend, Berench,
Berencze, etc. he came across in the sources as best a she could. Marton’s son
Berend who rescued King Charles (Karl) I in 1330; Thoma de Berench (1287),
Demetrius Niger de Berench and Erdeus de Berench (1298), Laurentius de Berench
(1244), Bened. Berenche (1337) and Gallus de Berend (1429) are some of these
names [4, p. 41-42].
L.Rásonyi also mentions two Hungarian villages called Börgönd and
Bergengye in the Fehervar and Baran regions, and links these names to Bergen, a
personal name in Turkish, which gave rise to the Hungarian personal name Beren.
He also derives the names Berény, Berencs and Berend from Beren. In this
interesting article about the name Bergen, the author has not established any links
with the Russian Berendei and Berény .
Hungarian Turkologist Gy. Németh also agrees that the personal name Berény
is definitely of Turkish origin .
From Rasovsky’s works, who has located the Berendi settlements in Hungary
with their approximate location, if not exactly; we may conclude that their
А.ЯСАУИ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІНІҢ ХАБАРШЫСЫ, №1, 2013
settlements were spread on larger areas, especially in the X-XII centuries.
However, finding out this kind of information and comparing these with the
coming eras is rather difficult.
We also hear the name Berendi in Bulgaria. According to this information,
there were two villages in the Tsaribroda and Breznika regions between the cities
of Sofia and Niš in Bulgaria. The name of the ruler of Moldova between 1438 and
1142 was also Berindey (Beryndej) .
The settlements of the Berendei Tribe were not always named after the tribes
(Berencz), but generally after the names of the kinsfolk, families, or even personal
names independently from the geography they lived in. Unfortunately this situation
hinders the identification of the numerous settlements which are doubtlessly of
Turkic origin. The records focus on this point beginning from the XIV century. If
these settlements belong to the Pechenegs, Uzes or the Berendeis; or to the Cumans
who have settled here later is yet to be cleared. It seems like the Berendei
settlements in Hungary first started when the Uzes and the Berendeis have
followed the large mass of the Pechenegs and crossed the northern and southern
parts of the Carpathian Mountains to arrive and settle in places like Kemei, Kőrős,
and probably also Aran. Thus, they were settled on the borders of Hungary and
stayed there forever after. However, these settlers were gradually employed by the
Hungarian State to perform certain services.
The Turkish settlements in Hungary were founded with the active initiative
of the Hungarian State. Most probably, they were captured by the Hungarians and
resettled in various places in line with the strategical benefits of the state. These
settlements have been formed as Turkish settlements in the area surrounded by
Slovakia in the north, Layta-Raba and Drava in the west, and the banks of Danube
in the south. These settlements were also observed in the inland, in Sarvisa
We can claim that the Turkic tribes were clearly forced to settle in these
areas, since these regions of the countries were absolutely inappropriate for the
lifestyle of the Turks in terms of the geographical conditions. For instance, neither
the mountainous and forested western part of Slovakia, nor the estuaries on these
lands were suitable for them to continue their half-nomadic lifestyle. Only in
Slovakia, we come across rare Pecheneg-Berendei settlements and posts on the
banks of certain rivers and forested areas [4, p. 42].
Limited information is available in the Hungarian sources about the political
role these Turkic settlers played in Hungary. All we know is that the Turks were
settled in large groups in various parts of Hungary due the continuing intense raids
form across the border. Since these settlers have outstanding military abilities, they
were used as mercenaries during the era as the Hungarian State was gaining in
strength. However, since the Turkic population in Hungary was ruled directly by
their own chieftains, as the Hungarian State grew stronger in the XII-XIII
centuries, the rulers of the Hungarian State decided to gradually decrease the
number of these Turkic settlers and to dissolve their national identity in order to
assimilate them. After this resolution was put in action, the Turkic settlers and the
А.ЯСАУИ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІНІҢ ХАБАРШЫСЫ, №1, 2013
kinsfolk adhering to their chieftains have been assimilated as Hungarians; and they
soon became an indispensable military force better organized than before, even
though they were smaller in number.
Since the Berendeis moved together both with the Uzes and the Pechenegs,
the relics excavated from their graves in the steppes of Eastern Europe carry the
features of the graves of both the Uzes and the Pechenegs. Therefore, they could
not be evaluated separately by the archaeologists. The conclusions reached from
these graves can be summarized as follows: These graves that belong to the IX-
XIII centuries can be divided in two groups. The first group consists of shallow
earthen graves located under relatively small cairns or within the bastions of older
cairns. The heads of the bodies laid in the supine position are directed towards the
west. On the left side of the body, on the floor of the grave, or in a special place,
the head and leg bones of a horse - or more probably - the body of a horse buried in
his skin and lying in the anatomical position are observed. The most typical relics
found together with these are iron bridles (non-twisted bridles) and breechings
made of iron or bone to attach the bridle, which sometimes had fixed loops at the
edges. Other relics among the objects related to harnesses are oval stirrups with
foothold, and pieces of harness formed to attach the buckles of the saddle girths to
both sides. The weapons found include slightly curved swords, sometimes elliptic
cross knives made of iron, a pair of attachments made of bones for the bow and
rarely, a couple of arrowheads left within the quiver. The jewellery found includes
fibulae in the shape of crosses and heraldry in the shape of sliced leaves adorned
with symbols of the tree of life, or a bird with spread wings. Pletnëva claims that
these belong to the Pechenegs [34, p. 153].
The graves constituting the second group are earthen graves where the head of
the body is turned westwards under the bastions of the cairns and certain parts of a
horse are observed to be buried with the body. The differential characteristic of
these graves is the woodwork and the pavement at the bottom of the grave [34, p.
Conclusion: As we see, the Berendeis were an ancient Turkic tribe who settled in Russia
and Hungary and gained a considerable power in these countries during the X-XIII
centuries. They thus became an integral part of the border defence systems and
undertook the protection of the borders of the strategic areas on behalf of these
countries. While their capital in Hungary was Fehervar, they were settled along the
roads extending northwards from Kiev in Russia.
Although the Berendeis could not act independently from the Pechenegs either
in Kievan Russia or in Hungary, their entrance to both countries occurred
independently from them and at an earlier time point. These settlements helped
them to culturally influence both the Russians and the Hungarians. The most
important interaction occurred especially on the point of the military tactics and
horsemanship. Their habits and jewellery were also bought and used by the
А.ЯСАУИ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІНІҢ ХАБАРШЫСЫ, №1, 2013
Unfortunately, settling on
Russian, Slovak, Hungarian and Romanian territories
led them to intermingle with the local people in time, paving the way for their
assimilation and the dissolution of their national identity.
KAYNAKÇA 1.Yücel M.U. İlk Rusya Yıllıklarına Göre Türkler. –Ankara, 2007. In this study,
concise information has been given about the Berendeis and all the information on the
Berendeis in the Russian annals has been related.
2.For valuable analyses on the Turkic origins of the Berendeis, please refer to J.
Marquart, “Ueber das Volkstum der Komanen”, Osttürkische Dialektstudien. –Berlin,
3.Golubovskiy, Peçenegi, Torki,Polovtsı do Naşestviya Tatar. // Universitetskiye
Izvestiya. –No.1. –Kiev, 1883-1884. P.432.
4.Rasovsky D.A. “Peçenegi, Torki ve Berendi Ha Rus i Ugrii”, Seminarium
Kondakovianum VI. –Prag, 1933. –P. 11.
5.Jirecek C. Einige Bemerkungen über die Überreste der Petschenegen und Kumanen,
sowie über die Völkerschaften der sogenannten Gagauzi und Surguci im heutigen
Bulgarien. –Sitzungsber., 1889. –P.6.
6.Rasonyi L. Doğu Avrupa’da Türklük, /Turk. Tr. by Yusuf Gedikli/, Selenge
Yayınları. –Istanbul, 2006. –P.184.
7.Batur A. who translated Artamonov’s work into Turkish, has translated the name
Berendei as Barani or Bayandur in order to link them to the Bayındır tribe, which is
considered as one of the 24 Oguz tribes.
8.Artamonov M.I. Hazar Tarihi, / Turk. Tr. by A.Batur/. Selenge Yayınları. –Istanbul,
9.Kafesoğlu, Türk Milli Kültürü. –Istanbul, l992. –P.182.
10.Kurat A.N. IV-XVIII Yüzyıllarda Karadeniz Kuzeyindeki Türk Kavimleri ve
Devletleri. –Ankara, l972. –P.68.
11.Aristov N.A. Jıvaya Starina, 1896. –Vıp III-IV. –P.310-311.
12.Sobolevsky A.I. Rusyasko-Skifskih Etyudah, Izb. Otd. Rusyask. Yaz. I Slov. Akad.
Nauk, 1921. –XVI. –P. 10.
13.Parhomenko V. “Çorni Klobuki”, Shidniy Sbit. –No. 5. –Harkov, 1928. –P. 244-
14.Ràsonyi L. “Der Volksname Berendey”, Seminarium KondokovianumVI. –1935. –
15.Baskakov A.N. Turkskaya Leksika v Slove o Polku Igoreve. – Moskva, 1985. –P.
16.Brutkuz J. “Eski Kiev’in Türk Hazar Menşei”. / Turk. Tr. by Halil İnalcık- İkbal
Berk/, A.Ü.DTCF, C.IV/3. –Mart-Nisan, 1946. –P.351.
17.Tatishev V.N. Istorya Rossiyskaya. –II, 1768. –P.79: Re-printed in 2005.
18.Downloadable from: http:az.ib.ru/t/tatishew_w_n
19.Rasovsky, “Eski Rus Tarihinde Kara-Kalpakların Rolü”. /Turk. Tr. by H.Orkin/,
Ülkü, C.X. –P.57, 1937. –P. 252-253.
20.Among the Russian historians, M. Pogodin studied the Berendeis in the Russian
annals. Cf. M. Pogodina, Issledovaniya, Zamiçaniya i Lektsi o Ruskoy Istorii,C.V, – Moskva,
25.02.2012. А.ЯСАУИ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІНІҢ ХАБАРШЫСЫ, №1, 2013
21.Kossanyi V. “XI-XII.nci Asırlarda Uzlar ve Komanlar’ın Tarihine Dâir”,
/Türk.Terc., Hamit Koşay/, Belleten. –C.VIII. –P.29, 1944. –P.129.
22.Gumilev L.N. Muhayyel Hükümdarlığın İzinde, /Türk.Terc. A.Batur/, Selenge
Yayınları. –Istanbul, 2003. –P.367.
23.Kostomarov N.I. İstoriçeskiye Moonografii i İssledovaniya. –Sant-Peterburg, l903.
24.Ed. Semenov-Tyan-Shanskagy. Rossiya. –Sankt-Peterburg, 1899. –I. –P. 271.
25.Spitsin A.A. Koçevniçeskiy Kurgan Bliz Gor. Yureva Polskago // Izvestiya Imp.
Arheologiç. Komissii, 15. Ed., 1905. –P. 78-83.
26.Gumilev L.N. Eski Ruslar ve BüyükBozkır Halkları. / Turk. Tr. by A.Batur/. –
Istanbul, 2003. –P.148.
27.Kostomarov N. Istoriçeskiya Monografii i Izsledovaniya. –SPB, 1872. –I. –P. 189.
28.Dal V. Slovar Jivago VelikoRusyaskago Yazıka, (the item “berendeyka”).
29.Kossányi B. “Az úzok és Kománok tőrténetéhez a XI-XII. Században” (History of
the Uzes and the Cumans during the XI-XII. centuries). –Századok, 1924. –P.529.
However, Kossányi only points out the name Berend, but does not mention the name
30.Chaloupecky V., Staré Slovensko V. –Brastilave, 1923. –P. 72.
31.Rásonyi Seminarium. Der Volksanme Berendey. –P.223.
32.Németh Gy. “Maklar, Magyar Nvelv, C.XXVII, l937. –P. 147.
33.Jirecek, a.g.e. –P. 6-7.
34.Pletnëva S.A. “Peçenegi, Torki i Polovtsi v Yujno-Russkih Stepah”, MIA. –No.62,
ТҮЙІНДЕМЕ Мақалада Қара теңізден солтүстікке қарай орналасқан берендейлер түркі тайпасының
тарихы, оның сол уақыттағы түрлі жағдайлардағы орны, мемлекеттер арасындағы өзара
қарым-қатынастардағы саяси рөлі және одан әрі тайпа ретінде жойылуы сөз болады.
(Муала Юди Южел. Қара теңізден Солтүстікке дейін кеңінен танымал берендей түркі тайпасы) РЕЗЮМЕ В данной статье рассматривается история тюрского племени берендей, распологавшегося
к северу от Черного моря, его место в различных событиях того времени, политическая роль во
взаимоотношениях между государствами и дальнейшее исчезновение как племени.
(Муала Юди Южел. Тюрское племя берендей, распологавшееся к северу от Черного моря) А.ЯСАУИ УНИВЕРСИТЕТІНІҢ ХАБАРШЫСЫ, №1, 2013
М.М.ТАСТАНБЕКОВ тарих ғылымдарының кандидаты, доцент
А.Ясауи атындағы ХҚТУ