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Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional or advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that
can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels. Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil),
coal, propane, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as
artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors.
Some well-known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohol (methanol, ethanol, butanol),
chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural
gas, vegetable oil, and other biomass sources.
In the near future, biofuels will have to stand on their own without the large subsidies they are now
enjoying, if only to protect the U.S. Treasury and taxpayers from ballooning subsidy payments. At the very
least, the corn-ethanol subsidy should be phased out, as well as the import restrictions.
Methanol and Ethanol fuel are primary sources of energy; they are convenient fuels for storing and
transporting energy. These alcohols can be used in internal combustion engines as alternative fuels. Butanol
has another advantage: it is the only alcohol-based motor fuel that can be transported readily by existing
petroleum-product pipeline networks, instead of only by tanker trucks and railroad cars. However, crops
must be cultivated to provide the needed feedstock and then processed to produce the fuels. Cultivation and
processing involve the use of energy and other inputs, such as fertilizer, that can have negative effects on
greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts, like water pollution. A full production-cycle
analysis is needed to make definitive statements regarding the positive climate impacts of large-scale biofuel
production. Careful studies put the "well-to-wheels" greenhouse gas benefits of corn ethanol at about a 20-
percent reduction and cellulosic ethanol at about an 80-percent reduction relative to gas derived from
conventional oil .
Most experts look to alternative fuels and technologies as promising complements to petroleum in the
near term and likely substitutes in the long term. Currently, 98 percent of the U.S. transport sector runs on
petroleum. The reasons for this dominance are simple. Transportation fuels derived from petroleum pack a
lot of energy in a small volume and weight. The internal combustion engine (ICE) found in practically every
vehicle is compact, powerful, and well suited to transportation applications. And until recently, petroleum
has been a bargain, at least in the United States. If alternative energy sources are to compete effectively with
petroleum, they must be price competitive, perform well with existing ICE technology, or be packaged with
a new motor entirely, probably an electric one.
One can't know for certain how effective incentives-in the form of purchase subsidies-have been at
spurring hybrid, pure electric, and fuel-cell vehicle sales. However, it seems likely that although hybrid sales
have benefited from the credits, consumer satisfaction with the vehicles, combined with fear of ever-higher
gasoline prices, has been a substantial motivator. Similarly, it is doubtful that continued credits will do much
to build consumer demand for pure electric and fuel-cell vehicles until those vehicles meet customer
demands and gasoline prices remain high. What is needed is breakthrough battery technology; any
government policy that can accelerate the attainment of this goal will have a significant effect on the
commercialization and penetration of these vehicles.
Production of biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil (called yellow grease) or raw vegetable oils
from crops such as soybeans was developed as early as the invention of the diesel engine in 1878. Like
ethanol production, biodiesel enjoys government subsidies that make it price competitive with petroleum.
The Energy Information Administration estimated the current cost of a gallon of biodiesel made from
doubt been instrumental in the growth of biofuel production. The issue facing policymakers now is whether
these subsidies will be necessary in the future, how they can be set in some optimal sense (that is, as low as
possible to achieve the desired result), and how can they be removed or reduced given the political
constituency they have developed [2-4].
The advantages enjoyed by petroleum divide the potential competitors into two camps-liquid biofuels
(ethanol and biodiesel) that can be used in ICEs and other energy sources, such as hydrogen and electricity,
which require new motor technologies. In the case of hydrogen, a radically new delivery infrastructure is
also needed. In the near-to-medium term, biofuels are poised to be competitive. In the longer term, hydrogen
and electricity offer the technical potential to completely wean the United States from petroleum use.
The key rationale for reducing petroleum consumption lies in the fact that the market price does not
account for its full social cost: the negative externalities or consequences associated with petroleum use-such
as greenhouse gas emissions and national security issues-are not incorporated in the market prices. The least
expensive source of carbon for recycling into fuel is flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion where it
can be extracted for about USD $7.50 per ton. Automobile exhaust gas capture has also been proposed to be
economical but would require extensive design changes or retrofitting. Since carbonic acid in seawater is
in chemical equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, extraction of carbon from seawater has been
studied. Researchers have estimated that carbon extraction from seawater would cost about $50 per ton.
Carbon capture from ambient air is more costly, at between $600 and $1000 per ton and is considered
impractical for fuel synthesis or carbon sequestration.
The main purpose of fuel is to store energy, which should be in a stable form and can be easily
transported to the place of production. Almost all fuels are chemical fuels. The user employs this fuel to
generate heat or perform mechanical work, such as powering an engine. It may also be used to generate
electricity, which is then used for heating, lighting or electronics purposes.
The Renewable Fuels Association lists 102 ethanol refineries currently operating in the United States,
with an additional 43 refineries and seven expansions under construction. However, U.S. production of
ethanol from corn is limited by the availability of agricultural land suited to corn production and competing
food demand for corn.
To some, transportation nirvana involves not ICEs, but electric cars running on storage batteries or
electricity generated from on-board, hydrogen-powered fuel cells. If ICEs have a role in this utopia, it is in
the form of plug-in hybrids-electric cars with sizable on-board battery storage and ICEs to either recharge the
batteries or, when needed, provide power directly to the wheels. In either case, the extent to which these
alternatives affect our reliance on petroleum again depends on their relative cost with respect to petroleum
and biofuels and their acceptability in eyes of the consumers .
Kazakhstan has a huge potential to recycle alternative fuel. Because we have not only organic
compounds that could be used as biofuel but inorganic either. For example, big source of ammonia.
Ammonia can be used as fuel. A small machine can be set up to create the fuel and it is used where it is
made. Benefits of ammonia include, no need for oil, zero emissions, low cost and distributed production
reducing transport and related pollution.
Biodiesel is made from animal fats or vegetable oils, renewable resources that come from plants such
as, soybean, sunflowers, corn, olive, peanut, palm, coconut, safflower, canola, sesame, cottonseed, etc. Once
these fats or oils are filtered from their hydrocarbons and then combined with alcohol like methanol,
biodiesel is brought to life from this chemical reaction. These raw materials can either be mixed with pure
diesel to make various proportions, or used alone. Despite one’s mixture preference, biodiesel will release a
smaller number of its pollutants (carbon monoxide particulates and hydrocarbons) than conventional diesel,
because biodiesel burns both cleaner and more efficiently. Even with regular diesel’s reduced quantity of sulfur
from the ULSD (ultra-low sulfur diesel) invention, biodiesel exceeds those levels because it is sulfur-free.
Biofuels are also considered to be a renewable source. Although renewable energy is used mostly to
generate electricity, it is often assumed that some form of renewable energy or a percentage is used to create
Biofuels not only substitute for petroleum but they also can have beneficial impacts on climate change.
Ethanol and biodiesel are produced within a relatively closed carbon cycle where carbon dioxide (CO2)
released into the atmosphere during combustion is recaptured by the plant material and used to produce
additional fuels. To the extent these biofuels displace petroleum; they reduce CO2 emissions and therefore
are more climate-friendly than petroleum.
Biofuels seem well positioned to penetrate the transportation market. Ethanol can be produced from
corn, sugar, and fibrous plants, such as switch grass. Currently, 10 percent ethanol is blended with gasoline
However, with limited vehicle modifications costing between $50 and $150 per vehicle, new vehicles can be
produced to run on as much as 85 percent ethanol (e85) as well as 100 percent gasoline. These "flex fuel"
vehicles are currently being produced by U.S. automakers; General Motors, for example, estimates that more
than two million of its flex-fuel vehicles are on the road in the United States today.
Biomass in the energy production industry is living and recently dead biological material which can be
used as fuel or for industrial production.
Carbon neutral fuel is synthetic fuel – such as methane, gasoline, diesel fuel or jet fuel – produced
from renewable or nuclear energy used to hydrogenate waste carbon dioxide recycled from flue exhaust or
derived from carbonic acid in seawater. Such fuels are potentially carbon neutral because they do not result
in a net increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases. To the extent that carbon neutral fuels displace fossil
fuels, or if they are produced from waste carbon or seawater carbonic acid, and their combustion is subject
to carbon capture at the flue or exhaust pipe, they result in negative and net carbon dioxide removal from the
atmosphere, and thus constitute a form of greenhouse gas remediation. Such carbon neutral and negative
fuels can be produced by the electrolysis of water to make hydrogen used in the Sabatier reaction to produce
methane which may then be stored to be burned later in power plants as synthetic natural gas, transported by
pipeline, truck, or tanker ship, or be used in gas to liquids processes such as the Fischer–Tropsch process to
make traditional transportation or heating fuels.
Carbon neutral fuels have been proposed for distributed storage for renewable energy, minimizing
problems of wind and solar intermittency, and enabling transmission of wind, water, and solar power through
existing natural gas pipelines. Such renewable fuels could alleviate the costs and dependency issues of
imported fossil fuels without requiring either electrification of the vehicle fleet or conversion to hydrogen or
other fuels, enabling continued compatible and affordable vehicles. Germany has built a 250 kilowatt
synthetic methane plant which they are scaling up to 10 megawatts. Commercial developments are taking
place in Columbia, South Carolina, Camarillo, California, and Darlington, England [2, 3, 5].
The ecological status of Kazakhstan keeps going worse every single year. As the next generation we have to
think about the future of our country. Yes, Kazakhstan is full of oil and gas but it doesn’t mean we shouldn’t
develop another ways of recycling fuels. Alternative oil is not a miracle anymore as we thought years ago. And
Kazakhstan has everything to make it happen.
If we remain ever vigilant in our efforts, the human race should be able to successfully rise to the occasion
and get past this latest obstacle like we have every other hurdle that has crossed our path to progress over the
many centuries. Considering the alternative, do we really have any other logical choice available to us?
1. Richard E. Poulson Energy Research and Development Administration Laramie Energy Research
Center, Laramie, Wyoming “Alternative Fuels”
Кайралиева Т. Г., Кубекова Ш.Н., Масимханов У.Ш., Накатаев М. Е.
В настоящее время в технологии переработки растворов после выщелачивания урановых руд
селективностью, практически полной регенерируемостью сорбента, сравнительно небольшим расходом
химикатов, возможностью перерабатывать не только растворы, но и классифицированные и
неклассифицированные технологические пульпы. При этом выбор ионообменных cмол, обла-дающих
наилучшими показателями для переработки урансодержащих растворов различного состава, является
К испытаниям были представлены следующие образцы ионитов:
СYBBER USX 500T SO4 – макропористый сильноосновный анионит;
СYBBER USX 500T Cl – макропористый сильноосновный анионит;
СYBBER SX 002 – макропористый слабоосновный анионит.
Некоторые физико-механические характеристики указанных смол приведены в таблице 1.
СYBBER USX 500T SO4
СYBBER SX 002
Оценку кинетических и емкостных характеристик сорбентов в статическом режиме проводили согласно
инструкции, применяемой в ТОО «ИВТ» . Для исследования 5 мл сорбента помещали в сосуд, содержащий
5 л продуктивного раствора. Состав продуктивного раствора (г/л): U – 0,0604; pH – 1,86; кислотность – 0,98;
– 1,18; NO
– 0,58; Fe
– 0,017; Fe
– 0,39; SO
– 8,704; SiO
– 0,053. Раствор перемешивался со смолой
при помощи механической мешалки при комнатной температуре в течение 1-11 часов. После окончания
перемешивания сорбент отделялся от раствора и анализировался на содержание в нем урана.
Полученные данные приведены в таблице 2. На основании этих данных были построены
кинетические кривые сорбции ионитов (рис. 1). С увеличением времени исследования cорбционная
емкость всех представленных ионитов увеличивается, при этом для смол СYBBER USX 500T Cl,
СYBBER USX 500T SO4 по сравнению с СYBBER SX 002 она увеличилась почти в 2-2,5 раза. Таким
образом, наиболее лучшими сорбционными характеристиками обладают ионообменные смолы типа
СYBBER USX 500T Cl, СYBBER USX 500T SO4.
Для указанных ионитов были построены изотермы сорбции, которые снимали методом равных
навесок. По 9 см
сорбента помещали в агитаторы, содержащие различный объем урансодер-жащего
мешалки при комнатной температуре в течение 24 часов до наступления условного равновесия. По
окончании процесса сорбент отделялся от раствора фильтрованием через бумажный фильтр. Сорбент
и фильтрат анализировали на содержание в них урана. По результатам эксперимента были построены
изотермы сорбции (рис. 2, 3).
Исследование сорбции в статическом режиме ионитов
СYBBER USX 500T SO4, СYBBER USX 500T Cl, СYBBER SX 002
USX 500T SO4
Рисунок 1. Кинетические кривые сорбции смол
Как видно из графиков, изотермы сорбции всех трех смол имеют выпуклый вид, что позволяет
емкостью при данных условиях.