THE ETHICS OF TRANSLATING AND INTERPRETING А.М. Жалалова – аға оқытушы, Н.Юсупова –1-курс магистранты, Абай атындағы ҚазҰПУ, магистратура және PhD докторантура институты
Түйін Мақаланың басты мәселесі - ауызша және жазбаша аударманың этикалық нормалары. Барлық мәдениетті
қоғамда аудармашылардың жұмыс барысында, ұжымда жалпы және іскерлік этиканы ұстану дағдысы жайлы
Резюме В данной статье рассматриваются главные нормы этики перевода, как и письменного так и устного. Как и в
любой другой сфере, в переводе существует своя профессиональная этика, которая включает в себя элементы
деловой и общей этики, принятой в любом культурном обществе.
Вестник КазНПУ им. Абая, серия«Педагогические науки», №3(39), 2013 г. 90
"After the “space”, translation and interpreting are the most complex and unknown phenomenon," says the
famous linguist S. G. Barkhudarov, quoting the English philosopher Rogers. Language, as we know, is the
most important means of human communication, through which people exchange thoughts and mutual
understanding. Communication between people who speak different languages can be realized in two ways:
orally and in writing. If communicators speak in the same language, the communication takes place directly, but
when people speak different languages, direct communication becomes impossible Translation, therefore, is an
important tool, ensuring the fulfillment of its communicative function of language in those cases where people
express in different languages. Translation plays an important role in exchanging ideas between different peoples
and serves to spread cultural treasures in modern world, there are international contacts of different fields: culture
and business, science and sports, of course, tourism. On the one hand, translating promotes interest in the
language of the "masses." On the other there are more and more increasing demands for professional translators.
Translators needed everywhere: talks and conferences, exhibitions and seminars, travel groups and overseas tours.
Of course, the most demand of professionals is in the major European languages like English, German, French,
Spanish, Italian, etc.
What does translation mean? At first side - it's simple. What was said in the original text, we should present in
another language. But there is an old anecdote about a seminarian who had to translate the Latin sentence
«Spiritus quidem promptus est, caro autem infirma». This is the Gospel saying "The spirit indeed is willing, but
the flesh is weak" which seminarian translated as "Alcohol is good, but the meat is addled ."And this translation
is right in the sense that each of the words translated correctly in grammatical and lexical way. Only the meaning
of the original text, it certainly is not right.
And Boris Pasternak in the "Comments to the translations of Shakespeare," says that "... the translation must
give the impression of life, not literature."At a conference on the problems of translation speaker began his speech
as follows: "Art is big problem in general. The art of translation is generally difficult problem. " And so, the
difficulties faced by the translator, are numerous. And the first of them - the understanding of the original.
Particular difficulties arise when source and target languages belong to different cultures. For example, if
translator is European person who tries translate somebody or something originally from Arabic countries or Asia.
We have different cultures and traditions, so usually we can make mistake when we don’t understand them. And it
is not because of less of knowledge, it is because of different mentality and of course culture.
After saying a few words about culture and art of translating we can easily transfer to the ethics of translating
which is also very interesting issue in our modern society. As in any other field, the translation has its own
professional ethics, which includes elements of the business and general ethics, adopted in any polite society.
However, the conversion of the some specific features that are behind the scenes must follow every good
professional. The professional career of the interpreter is based on interpersonal communication that occurs
between the translator and the client, and between colleagues. That is why it is important to carry out ethical
standards that exist in this field. At first, the ethics focuses on creating a positive image of the client interpreter.
After all, if the employee is remembered in positive sides to the employer, it means that next time this client will
work again with this translator or will need the services of the firm. This creates not only the reputation of the
individual worker, but also the company as a whole.
Ethics is the art of conduct. Situational rules of conduct require full adaptation of translator to a situation in
which he finds himself. The great scientist or a movie star can be dressed provocatively or behave inappropriately
but translator can not. Because, in the role of the translator should be visible as a person, not to divert the attention,
his task is give right and accurate information. Therefore, he should be dressed neatly and as applicable, to comply
with the generally accepted rules of decency. He violates them only if they are incompatible with its primary
professional role in the situation. For example, if he wants to transfer during the dinner, it is not necessary to eat
and drink. Backstage at communicating translator can not participate in the conversation as an equal interlocutor;
otherwise it will distort the information source and lose its reliability as a translator. So his task is to adapt, but to
Ethics of translators is not much different from the ethics of interpersonal communication. General rules to be
followed by a person working in this field, are confidentiality, respect for the client and his or her wishes, and
commitment. This does not mean that you need throughout and fully agree with the customer, but translator must
prove his correctness in very polite and ethical way. Correct relation to the customer and showing politeness and
friendliness are more about human ethics, which should be not only in work but also in life. However, another
important rule of professional activity is the accuracy of information. The point is that the information provided by
the client should not get to a third person without the agreement of the customer. This applies both to the
interpretation and written way of translation. In some cases, an interpreter can be invited to business conversations
Абай атындағы ҚазҰПУ-нің Хабаршысы, «Педагогика ғылымдары» сериясы, №3(39), 2013 г. 91
and meeting. And interpreter must keep that information which he got there. Otherwise, it can lead to variety of
negative consequences, including the entering of an interpreter in the black list, and then it will be difficult to find
a job in this field. Often translators work with the citizens of other countries, and the impression left by one
person, can automatically move to the treatment of all his fellow citizens, which is another good reason to show
their best side. Not only professional (although they are important), but also the personal qualities of an interpreter
which influence the level of his relationship with the customer. However, do not be too polite, it is important to
maintain the level of self-esteem in communication with the client.
A professional translator or interpreter does not simply translate words from one language to another. His duty
is to interpret and connect ideas from one culture to another. Faithfully conveying ideas requires translators and
interpreters to express appropriate intonation and inflection and to properly transmit the concepts and inferences
of the speaker to the listener (interpreter) or the writer to the reader (translator). Typically, translators render in one
direction while interpreters alternate between two languages. Professional translators and interpreters need
comprehensive mastery of grammar, syntax and vocabulary of both the source and target languages, and in-depth
understanding of cultural norms. Additionally, extensive diverse general knowledge increases the translator’s or
interpreter's understanding and skill.
Interpreters must take care of their health because his physical condition affects the quality of the translation.
Translator has the right to react emotionally to the individual defects in speech and speaker should not play them,
it is oriented to the interpretation given to the oral version of the literary standard language translation. On his lack
of competence translator must immediately signal, and noticed for a correct mistakes and not hide, it is a
guarantee of high quality translation and credibility of others. In translation the translator must follow its design to
ensure correct attitude towards the customer. The translator is not the part of conversation or the opponent client ,
this implies that the text for translation untouchable.
A faithful interpretation or translation conveys the message the speaker or writer intends. A thorough rendering
of the source language message considers linguistic variations, tone and the spirit of the message without omitting
or altering statements or adding unsolicited explanations. A transliteration (literal word-for-word translation),
however, may not convey the message or make sense, particularly in the use of idioms. In that case, substitute an
appropriate, equivalent cultural idiom to maintain the spirit of the message.
Following ethical standards will not only be successful in the field of translation, but also leave a positive
impression on people you work with, which in itself is important. Translation etiquette is a set of written and
unwritten rules of behavior of interpreter in the discharge of his professional duties, and in relations with
colleagues, customers, translation and translation agencies. 
The total translational etiquette includes approximately the following:
- The translations in time with proper quality
- Fair treatment of all its responsibilities
- Punctuality (Interpretation)
- Polite and correct relations with all participants of the translated event
These rules are very similar to the rules of conduct with clients and translators and translation agencies. There
are much information about the ethics of translator and interpreter. Now I’m going to give you some practical
advices from my own experience. What the translator should not allow in any case?
• demonstrate your ignorance, ignorance of the issue, lack of preparedness, to argue in your defense;
• to attract too much attention, to behave carelessly or too emotional
• engage in private conversations with the negotiators (especially on sensitive issues regarding the company
• express their attitude to translate the statements, even if they are controversial;
• interrupt and supplement a fellow translator, you are working in pairs, allowed intervention only if a
colleague is clearly unable to cope with the translation;
• transfer in the third person: "He said that ..." - this is a big mistake;
• distracted by extraneous talking on a cell phone (it must be turned off);
• wear too bright or informal clothing to meetings and conversations, it is recommended classical style.
1. S. G. Barkhudarov //“Ethics of translation and interpreting’’, p.22 2. Sandra Bermann & Michael Wood Nation// Language, and the Ethics of Translation р.37 3. Aлексеева И. С.// Профессиональное обучение переводчика: Учебное пособие по устному и письменному переводу для переводчиков и преподавателей. — СПб.: Издательство «Союз», 2001, стр 18 4. Danilo Noguira, Kelly Semelini // “The ethics of translator”. Translation Journal, 2005,pages 51-53.
Вестник КазНПУ им. Абая, серия«Педагогические науки», №3(39), 2013 г. 92
TEACHING PHILOSOPHY Ч.Н. Асаналиева – Ж.Баласагын атындагы Кыргыз Улуттук Университетинин Педагогикалык Кадрларды максаттуу даярдоо Институтунун агаокутуучусу.Четтил дерциклдык комиссиясынынжетекчиси Teaching is a lifelong learning process of learning about new philosophies and new strategies, learning from
the parents and community, learning from colleagues, and especially learning from the children. The teaching
philosophy is becoming a more common part of academic life for both faculty and graduate students. A teaching
philosophy is a self-reflective statement of teacher’s beliefs about teaching and learning. In addition to general
comments, your teaching philosophy should discuss how you put your beliefs into practice by including concrete
examples of what you do or anticipate doing in the classroom. The teaching philosophy is a document in progress.
As your teaching changes and your professional identity grows, your teaching philosophy will also change and
I believe that most of us have our own teaching philosophy. As a teacher, I have the utmost confidence that
every individual is able to strive for success in their academic performance. In order to realize that, I should try
my best to promote growth by employing creativity, stressing the importance of education as well as giving my
students the freedom to think and discover knowledge. Moreover, I also appreciate that each different individual is
unique therefore any ideas, opinions, criticisms and suggestions from them should be taken into consideration.
Each student is a unique individual who needs a secure, caring, and stimulating atmosphere in which to grow and
mature emotionally, intellectually, physically, and socially.
Goal number one is to educate the students in my classes. I want them to learn the material of my courses in a
permanent, long-lasting way
I want to inspire students, to change their lives, so that they discover life paths that they had never considered
before. This may seem arrogant and ambitious, but I’ve seen it happen
I relish the privilege of getting to know the students in my classes, to talk with them, to visit, to joke, to
develop relationships and most importantly to become friends. Teaching a thrill!
Teaching provides an opportunity for continual learning and growth. One of my hopes as a teacher is to instill
a love of learning in my students, as I share my own passion for learning with them. I feel there is a need for
compassionate, strong, and dedicated individuals who are excited about working with children. In our competitive
society it is important for students to not only receive a solid education, but to work with someone who is aware
of and sensitive to their individual needs. I am such a person and will always strive to be the best teacher that I can
I am learning. I learn something new with every semester that I teach. I have learned a lot in the time that I
have been here, but I have also come to appreciate how much more I have to learn. I find teaching to be a constant
challenge. I have learned that there is no “right way” to teach something, because every group of students is
different. Sometimes a lesson which works with one group of students will fail miserably with another group of
students, and so I simply have to take a deep breath and try another approach. Thus, I think that perhaps my
greatest strength is my flexibility and my ongoing efforts to become a better teacher. As fundamental principle, I
think that what I do in the classroom is far less important than what the students themselves do, in and out of class.
The most important facets of my courses are what I require the students to do, the set of activities and assignments
that I give to the students.
When I first started teaching, many years ago, I was most concerned that my students learned the things I
thought they needed to know, whether those were topics about English speaking countries culture, how to write
persuasively, or the ins and outs of library research. Whether I was teaching skills or content, I believed my first
responsibility was communicating information that I had already chosen.
Over the years I experienced a series of realizations, some prompted by my students, others by circumstance,
which have led me to my current approach to teaching. I also realized that my students would have to find their
own reasons and approaches, in their own lives, to pursue scholarship. Without this personal motivation and
individual approach, no information I present, no skills I model will be of any use to them. I began to focus on
communicating my own enthusiasm to my students, so that even if they did not absorb every detail I presented
during class, they would be interested enough to work with me on finding the best learning process and to keep
learning on their own.
There are basic three-part processes:
You will begin by generating ideas for your teaching philosophy based on your attitudes, values, and beliefs
about teaching and learning.
Абай атындағы ҚазҰПУ-нің Хабаршысы, «Педагогика ғылымдары» сериясы, №3(39), 2013 г. 93
You will organize your ideas and create a working draft. You'll also check to make sure that you've illustrated
your personal beliefs with specific examples of classroom practice that take into account disciplinary contexts and
You will assess your first draft, comparing it to a rubric – a set of guidelines – for effective teaching
philosophies. Your assessment should point the way toward gaps in the essay or areas that need to be reworked
during subsequent revisions.
The pedagogical challenge of helping each student make an individual connection to writing is at the root of
my three main interests: Multiple Intelligence Theory, Web-supported Instruction, and Inter-cultural
communication. Multiple Intelligence theory posits that a student's preferred medium for thinking and
communicating is the best through which to introduce new skills and concepts, and it tries to determine how
teachers might identify and then use that medium in the classroom. Computer technology can make non-textual
material far easier to bring into a class, both for students and teachers, and its use has helped us see how Multiple
Intelligence theory might be applied. This technology can further allow students to pursue their studies more
independently, setting their own pace and choosing their own path.
Now, when I teach, I try not just to impart information and skills, but also enthusiasm for the subject and the
process of studying. I aim to make my students aware that the challenges facing me as the teacher also face them
when they write, or speak, or otherwise communicate in our class and in general. Taking this approach has led to
more productive discussions and feedback in class because the students and I talk explicitly about what I am
trying to teach them and how that relates to the choices I have made in presenting material, creating assignments,
and figuring grades. Talking about how an assignment is supposed to work and what skills it should help polish
leads students to be more conscious of their own learning process. Students are then better able to identify their
own difficulties with an assignment and suggest solutions. I also talk to students about why I teach certain ways of
writing, or choose certain topics for assignments, so that they can see the context of an academic community in
which they write. The students further learn that we all make choices when communicating, and we all make
interpretations when listening or viewing; they become active participants in learning and thus more invested in
the outcome, and in continuing beyond the end of any one class.
I try to teach each student as an individual, because each will have different needs in writing based in their own
unique situation, and these are shaped by "intelligences," by cultural background, by the major they choose, and
countless other factors. There is no one right approach for me to take as a teacher, or for them to take as writers.
Instead, I focus on helping students identify and understand their own particular writing needs, and to find the best
way in which to meet those needs. I believe that each child is a unique individual who needs a secure, caring, and
stimulating atmosphere in which to grow and mature emotionally, intellectually, physically, and socially. It is my
desire as a educator to help students meet their fullest potential in these areas by providing an environment that is
safe, supports risk-taking, and invites a sharing of ideas.
There are three elements which are conducive to establishing such an environment
the teacher acting as a guide,
allowing the child's natural curiosity to direct his/her learning, and
promoting respect for all things and all people.
When the teacher's role is to guide, providing access to information rather than acting as the primary source of
information, the students' search for knowledge is met as they learn to find answers to their questions. For students
to construct knowledge, they need the opportunity to discover for themselves and practice skills in authentic
situations. Providing students access to hands-on activities and allowing adequate time and space to use materials
that reinforce the lesson being studied creates an opportunity for individual discovery and construction of
knowledge to occur.
Equally important to self-discovery is having the opportunity to study things that are meaningful and relevant
to one's life and interests. Developing a curriculum around student interests fosters intrinsic motivation and
stimulates the passion to learn. One way to take learning in a direction relevant to student interest is to invite
student dialogue about the lessons and units of study. Given the opportunity for input, students generate ideas and
set goals that make for much richer activities than I could have created or imagined myself. When students have
ownership in the curriculum, they are motivated to work hard and master the skills necessary to reach their goals.
Helping students to develop a deep love and respect for themselves, others, and their environment occurs
through an open sharing of ideas and a judicious approach to discipline. When the voice of each student is heard,
and environment evolves where students feel free to express themselves. Class meetings are one way to encourage
such dialogue. Students have greater respect for their teachers, their peers, and the lessons presented when they
feel safe and sure of what is expected of them. In setting fair and consistent rules initially and stating the
Вестник КазНПУ им. Абая, серия«Педагогические науки», №3(39), 2013 г. 94
importance of every activity, students are shown respect for their presence and time. In turn they learn to respect
themselves, others, and their environment.
For me, teaching provides an opportunity for continual learning and growth. One of my hopes as an educator is
to instill a love of learning in my students, as I share my own passion for learning with them. I feel there is a need
for compassionate, strong, and dedicated individuals who are excited about working with children. In our
competitive society it is important for students to not only receive a solid education, but to work with someone
who is aware of and sensitive to their individual needs. I am such a person and will always strive to be the best
educator that I can be.
I believe each and every child has the potential to bring something unique and special to the world. I will help
children to develop their potential by believing in them as capable individuals. I will assist children in discovering
who they are, so they can express their own opinions and nurture their own ideas. I have a vision of a world where
people learn to respect, accept, and embrace the differences between us, as the core of what makes life so
I should practice professionalism such as showing good leadership skills for my students. In my opinion, being
an authoritarian will only create a distance between a teacher and a student. As a teacher, I should be able to attend
to my students’ personal and academic needs whenever needed. In addition, I will try to create a comfortable
learning environment based on respect instead of fear. In order to achieve that, I must build strong rapport with
my students so that all of us can learn in a conducive and fun environment. Likewise, communication is
apparently an important key to an effective teaching and learning process in the academic setting.
My students are my main priority and I am aware that each of them has different level of proficiency in
English language. During class, I believe that most people learn best when they are not passively observing a
lecture, but instead when they are actively participating in the lesson, when they are involved, explaining, solving,
talking, trying, working, and struggling. People learn when they are figuring things out for themselves, rather than
expecting others to teach them. I believe that by creating a student-centered learning, my students will be able to
take charge of their own learning with little assistance from the teacher. This will inculcate a sense of
responsibility in them in terms of achieving their learning goal. As a teacher, one of my roles would be to coach
and facilitate them throughout the learning process by providing information and giving useful guidelines in order
for them to achieve their learning target.
By being more resourceful, I will be able to achieve self-satisfaction and success in teaching. As a teacher, I
am open to new ideas and suggestions therefore I would like to be more involved in educational activities, attend
educational talks and participate in forums or conferences to further expand my knowledge. Moreover, being up-
to-date with the latest information, keeping in touch with global issues and getting my hands on the latest
technology are some of the ways for me to improve myself. In my view, I could also incorporate them into my
classroom practice because as for me, knowledge-wise, teachers should be at least two or three steps ahead of
their students. Therefore I have to be well-prepared for every lesson by planning my time and materials efficiently
to ensure that a successful lesson takes place. I also feel that it is wise to reflect on every lesson that has been
conducted so that I can identify the strengths and rectify the weaknesses.
Last but not least, my students should be encouraged to explore every opportunity to utilize the authentic
resources around their environment. In order to achieve this, I would vary my teaching styles while at the same
time encouraging critical thinking skills among my students. In my personal point of view, a teacher should dare
to be different. I think that learning should not only be limited within the four walls. I will try to make my lessons
more relevant and appropriate to my students so that they can relate whatever they learn in the classroom with the
‘real’ environment outside of the academic setting. At the end of the day, my students should be able to have self-
confidence, good interpersonal skills and excellent knowledge once they have mastered the crucial skills to
Teaching philosophies are typically between one and four double-spaced pages but may be longer or shorter
depending on your circumstances. They are written for two particular audiences. The first is search committees,
since teaching philosophies are increasingly becoming part of the academic job search dossier. The second
audience is yourself and your colleagues. In this case, the teaching philosophy serves a formative purpose — a
document that helps you reflect on and improve your teaching.
During the 20 years I have been working in the field of English language teaching and learning, I have put
myself in the position of language learner rather than teacher. In addition to enjoying language study and finding
the process fascinating, I have learned something from every teacher I have ever had, even the worst of them. I
think a good teacher should have qualities of four areas, such as: affective characteristics, skills, classroom
management techniques and academic knowledge.
Абай атындағы ҚазҰПУ-нің Хабаршысы, «Педагогика ғылымдары» сериясы, №3(39), 2013 г. 95
1. Haugen, Lee. “Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement.”Center for Teaching Effectiveness.Iowa State University. 2. Lang, James M. "4 Steps to a Memorable Teaching Philosophy.The Chronicle of Higher Education.August 29, 2010. 3. Mangum, Teresa. "Views of the Classroom."Insider Higher Education. October 28, 2009. 4. Montell, Gabriela. “How to Write a Statement of Teaching Philosophy.”The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 27, 2003. 5. Montell, Gabriela. “What’s your Philosophy on Teaching, and Does it Matter?” The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 27, 2003. 6. O'Neal, Chris, Deborah Meizlish, and Matthew Kaplan."Writing a Teaching Philosophy for the Academic Job Search."CRLT Occasional Papers.No. 23.University of Michigan Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. 2007.. 7. Van Note Chism, Nancy."Writing a Philosophy of Teaching Statement.”Ohio State University. 8. Vick, Julie Miller and Jennifer S. Furlong. "Writing Samples and Teaching Statements," Julie Miller Vick and Jennifer S. Furlong, The Chronicle of Higher Education Dec. 20, 2010. 9. Mark Lenssen Prize for Publishing on Teaching Philosophy (2002, 2004, 2006, 2010)