134 135 серия ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ. 2014. №3 ISSN 1811-1823. Вестник ПГУ В настоящей статье рассматривается идейно-жанровая характеристика и мастерство использования художественных методов в произведениях Кабдеша Жумадилова. This article is devoted to the ideological and genre characteristics and the use of artistic methods in the works of Kabdesh Zhumadilov. UDC 81’373:811
A. B. Ibrayeva THE ROLE OF TURKISMS IN A LINGUO-CULTURAL INTERACTION OF THE KAZAKH AND POLISH PEOPLE The aim of this article is to outline the interaction of Kazakh and Polish people in a linguo-cultural aspect. The definition of the concept «language picture of the world» is given in this article. The analysis of turkisms in the Slavic languages is also described in this article. Language activity, first of all, is provided with openness and dynamism of the
vocabulary instantly responding to any changes in public life and therefore being
a special form of accumulation of public and informative experience and transfer
of its accumulation. I. I. Sreznevski was deeply right telling: “For a historian every
word is witness, a monument, the fact of people’s life, the more important, the
more important the concept is expressed by it. Supplementing with one another,
they together represent the system of people’s concepts, transmit pain of people’s
life” . Therefore it is not casual that R. A. Budagov denotes the borrowings
of ethnographic subjects earlier unknown, concepts and phenomena testifying
on multilateral contacts in various spheres of people’s activity as “cultural and
As the culture is the “system of the values created in the course of development
by the person of the nature and society during accustoming in the surrounding
nature”, the concept “cultures” covers “all that is created by the person and that,
therefore, is opposed to “nature”. The concept “language picture of the world”
is used to solve a problem of language and culture correlation. Still the German
scientist V. von Humboldt developing the doctrine about language as a continuous
creative process that “forms the body of thought” specified that each language
expresses an individual world view of the people reflects a national way of attitude
and conceptualization of world model. The thought that language represents the
main form of expression of national cultural values, has the development in the
works of the American scientists E. Sapir and B. A.Whorf. L. V. Shcherba also
mentioned it: “Every language presents us the external world, perceived in a
special way … In every language the world is represented differently” [2, p. 89].
A famous modern linguist V. P. Sinyachkin in the article “Historical and
Cultural Layer of Turkisms in the Russian Ordinary Consciousness” in detail
analyzes the Turkisms in Russian lexical fund, pays special attention to the cultural
and historical preconditions of the borrowed vocabulary. So, he writes: “The
borrowed vocabulary in any language is the most eloquent witness of historical
dialogue of people’s cultures. The ways and nature of penetration of the foreign
word in other language are various and diverse, as well as the forms of contact
and co-existence of ethnoses. The loans’ manifestations in languages are also
various. For one of it is necessary to keep the foreignness throughout historically
long time, for instance, such as a dress coat mentioned in the novel “Eugene
Onegin”. Others from the moment of emergence become native, for instance,
such as Russian accordion” [3, p. 132].
The scientist writes the following about own attitude to the Turkisms: “…
not only practice, but also consciousness, and if you want my soul to perceive
the Turkisms conceptually in different way than borrowings from the European
languages” [4, p. 139]. V. P. Sinyachkin managed to present the Turkisms perceived
in the Russian consciousness as primordially Russian words and externally
lost the “foreignness” and “exoticism” long ago, “serve as special markers of
“Russianness” on the basis of the logical story constructed by him in respect of
the Russian life” (V. P. Sinyachkin). So, he lists the following Turkisms, many of
which strongly entered the Russian literary language: sarafan, Karabas, tyurban, t’ma, cauldron, aul, steppe, buran, blizzard, hurricane, yamschik, kibitka, hay, haulm, wheat, kurgan, barchan, gully, ravine, gill, musk deer, arkhar, goiterred gazelle, boar, badger, corsac, jackal, jerboa, ground-squirrel, gopher, marmot, goat, locust, cockroach, spider, flock, tamga, kiel mark, host, panther, eagle, golden eagle, jackdaw, gannet, seagull, carp, sevruga, pike perch, catfish, crucian, rudd, custom, bogatyr, kuren, aspen, ash, bird cherry, shawl, ensign, Cossack, metaphrsat, crowd, izba, tulup, armyak, roba, sunduk, kushak, frock coat, rubakha, caftan, trousers, sharovary, chuvyaks, boots, baul, satin, byaz’, stockings, earring, pearl, diamond, yakhont, yashma, inkle, whip, sword, kindjal, comrade, dumpling, noodle, home brew, nut, halva, melon, raisin, barn, pea, frying pan, cocker, knob, battle-axe, glaive, cart, trap, arba, cream-colored, light-brown, roan, bay, light- chestnut, Caucasian riding horse, mess, balagan, etc. For the first time the term “world picture” was used by L. Wittgenstein in
aspect of philosophy and logic. In linguistics this term was used by L. Weisgerber,
who developed the thesis of V. von Humboldt about language as “an intermediate
world”, which settles down between the person and reality and represents the
features of national mentality.
136 137 серия ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ. 2014. №3 ISSN 1811-1823. Вестник ПГУ “Generally the picture of the world of the author and represented the images
coincided with the picture of the world of ethnos, to which it belongs (without
some subjective moments). In this case an estimated sense differs radically from a
situation, when a representative of other ethnos describes and estimates the same
reality, creates the images inherent in this reality. If everything is familiar, native,
habitual for the representative of this ethnos, for the representative of other ethnos
it is all new. Both appearance of people and houses. Life. Smells. Language”.
Besides, the representative of other ethnos is as “an observer from outside … and
they can notice that the one, who daily lives in own national cauldron, not always
sees” - writes Kazakhstani researcher M. B. Amalbekova in her work [5, p. 34].
During many millennia every people has its vital way, language, spiritual and
material culture. “Every people marry, give birth, get sick and die in their own
way; treat, work, manage and have a rest in their own way; smile, joke and laugh in
their own way; observe, behold and create painting in their own way; pray and act
heroically in their own way … Every people have a special sense of justice, other
character, other discipline, other idea of moral way, other family way. In a word,
every people have a special sincere way and the spiritual and creative act”, - these
words belong to the known Russian sociologist and jurist I. A. Ilyin [6, p. 280].
Adolf Yanushkevich narrates in detail and emotionally about the features of
the way of life, spiritual culture, high oratory of akyns, management talent of the
Kazakh biis and many other. For instance, in the letter to his friend G. Zelinski he
writes: “Several days ago I witnessed a collision between two conflicting parties
and with surprise clapped to the speakers, who never heard about Demosthenes
and Cicero. And today I am addressed by the poets, who are not able neither to
read, nor to write, however striking with their talents, because their songs tell to
my soul and heart so much. Can they be wild barbarians?! Are these people forever
intended to be only inutile shepherds deprived of any other future?! Oh no! The
truth is that the people, who are gifted with such abilities by the Creator, cannot
remain alien to the civilization, sometimes its spirit will get into the Kazakh steppes,
will inflate the light sparkles, and time will come, when a wandering nomad takes
a rightful place among the people, who look down at them as the highest castes
of Hindustan at unfortunate pariah” [7, p. 2].
A direct correlation between the meaning of a word and national culture can
be established by the comparison of meanings of some dictionary equivalents
in various languages. The words determined by dictionaries as interlingual
compliance disperse in its meanings as an ethnocultural component brought by
background vocabulary supplements actually semantic information. “Replace
piala with a cup, ketmen with a shovel or a pick, uval – a fence, aryk – a stream,
and at once your speech will lose its accuracy, will definitely be distorted in the
contents” - A. V. Mirtov wrote . The distinctions in the meanings of some
words are explained by the cultural and ethnographic features inherent in the
different people. We should note that the work of A. Mukhlinski written in 1858
is considered to be the first etymological dictionary of words of the East origin
of Polish and the first dictionary of the East vocabulary in the Slavic languages.
The language image of national culture is formed throughout the long
historical development. At the same time a process of formation of a national
cultural image is accompanied by the process of internationalization, interaction
of different linguocultures. In every language along with the national and specific
components there are also allocated common language, international components.
Every language reflects the originality of culture of the concrete people, the national
character of native speakers and the general universal component of public culture.
The Northern Kazakhstan is the region, where interact the languages of many
ethnoses: Kazakh, Russian, Polish, German, Ukrainian and many other.
It was much said about the Kazakh-Russian bilingualism, but the relations of
the Kazakh and Polish languages were not studied yet at the proper level, though it
is necessary to appreciate and remember that the first poem in the world literature
about Kazakhs was written by the Pole.
The invaluable contribution to interaction of the Kazakh and Polish
linguocultures was brought by the works of such outstanding writers, historians,
ethnographers as A. Yanushkevich, G. Zelinski, Y. Vitkevich, the poet and musician
A. Zatayevich and many other.
The Polish culture has the European and Latin roots. At the same time, it
always had close connections with the East, and in particular with the Turkic world.
The Ottoman Empire and the Tatar states throughout many centuries were our
neighbors, with whom we were at war, were on friendly terms, traded, and studied
each other. Since those times in the Polish culture, namely in the language and
fine arts many elements were preserved that also inherent in the Kazakh culture.
Besides, in Poland there still live the Tatar and Karaimsk minorities that cultivate
their traditions and belief.
Till the XIX century in Lviv there lived the community of the Kipchaks
that used cultural, religious and judicial autonomy approved by the Polish kings”
[9, p. 69].
As many reviews indicate, many Turkic names of clothes meet not only
in Russian, but also in other Slavic languages. They are not quantitatively and
qualitatively identical in respect of languages. A large number of Turkisms is noted
in all East Slavic languages, and it allows to assume that through these languages
Turkism could penetrate into Polish.
The clothes as one of the components of material culture is interesting
not only for ethnographers, archeologists, historians, but also for linguists
(G. M. Mironov). However, there are a few linguistic researches concerning
a considered theme group on the material of the Slavic languages. These are
the works of I. S. Vakhros, G. M. Mironova, E. N. Repyeva, G. V. Sudakov,
138 139 серия ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ. 2014. №3 ISSN 1811-1823. Вестник ПГУ A. V. Superanskaya, G. Y. Tomilina, and the number of the works using the
Turkisms as a special object of research is insignificant. For instance, it is possible
to mention the researches of G. N. Aslanov, Z. P. Zdobnova, G. Y. Tomilina,
I. O. Fedorovskaya, R. A. Yunaleeva, only in the separate works mainly devoted
to household vocabulary, it is possible to find among other names of clothes the
words of the Turkic origin considered in comparison with one or two East Slavic
languages (the works of I. S. Kozyrev, S. I. Kotkov, E. N. Borisova).
The work of famous linguist F. Mikloshich contains the big lexical material
about the Turkisms in the languages of the Eastern and Southeast Europe.
The material of F. Mikloshich is in many respects similar to the glossaries in
the “Materials for the Comparative and Explanatory Dictionary”: there is no
historicism, the Turkic languages act not differentially enough. However, the
weakness of the dictionary was explained by insufficient study of the Turkic
languages at that time. As a whole Ukrainian differs in a greatest number of lexical
and semantic manifestation of the the Turkisms, which is not observed in other
East Slavic languages. In the Ukrainian land the borrowings received a set of the
homonymous formations that mean: 1) toy - a top, 2) a sort of children’s game,
3) the name of one of the blow by stick in a game, 4) a sort of haricot, 5) a pot
flower, 6) attach to a weed-wacker used, when mowing a high grass.
The word burka is homonymous in the Russian and Ukrainian languages
coinciding in the main semantic manifestations: in both languages, except the
nomination of “a type of clothes”, it is used for designation of “a horse of brown
color”. But in Ukrainian there are also known other homonymous meanings:
“potatoes”, “storm” and “narrow opening... in rocks...” In the Pskov dialects of
Russian burka can designate “a small glass jar”: “my mother sent me a burka of
sour cream” [10, p. 218], and in the Ryazan dialects “a vial of gas in any liquid”
[11, p. 70]. These meanings arose, obviously, according to similarity as peculiar
types of receptacles. In the Polessky Ukrainian dialects the word burka denotes
“a curl of curly hair” and “the curly person” [12, p. 80].
It is a case of a consecutive transfer of meaning on external similarity to a
production material of clothes – felt from sheep wool.
For all East Slavic languages it is an inherent ‘sema’ – the name of clothes,
which at the general similarity has no full high-quality and quantitative coincidence
in subject correlation. So, in the modern Russian literary language burka means
“a sort of a felt dense shaggy raincoat”; in Lipetsk dialects – “short clothes from
dark sheep wool”, in Kursk and Voronezh – “road canvas raincoat with sleeves”;
in the Pskov dialects – “pelerine”.
One of the most ancient Turkic loans in the East Slavic languages is ependytes.
This Turkism is included into the number of lexemes that used to have a public
use and then became an obsolete word.
The introduction of ependytes by Peter I as an obligatory attribute of military
regimentals was the top of realia usage: soldiers put it on over a uniform in rainy
or cold time [13, p. 137]. From the XVIII century this lexeme started acting
more often in the form of epanechka as designation of women’s clothing: a
short sleeveless shubeyka, a cape over a caftan. At the end of the XVIII century
ependytes as the type of clothes still remained, but already acquired a concrete
appointment equated to a raincoat. Further there was also a full replacement of
ependytes with the word raincoat that had accurately shown the definiteness of
nomination. In the dictionaries of the XIX century the word ependytes is already
given as obsolete, now it is among historicisms.
As the reality the name ependytes were mostly held in the dialects, where it
is known in several meanings: “type of clothes”; “cloth”; “the roof on four slopes”
and as a part of the phraseological unit of our cloth ependytes – “to live in our
way”, “to live like we do”.
A general distribution of a lexeme ependytes: arkh. Olon., Volog., Tamb.,
Voron., Kaluzh., Kursk., Bryansk., Penz., Ryazan., Kostr., Vyat. Mosc., Sverd.,
Ulyan., Tul., Gork., Kamch., the dialects of Tatarstan, Bashkiria, i.e. generally
the central Russian dialects.
In the dialects ependytes as “the type of clothes” differs: on a production
material, breed and on compliance to any type of clothes. On a material there can
be met: a) from heavy silk or figured bright flowers of fabric (Arkh.) b) from yarn
wool (Tul. Kaluzh. ) c) from a velvet or satin (Olon.); d) on fox fur (Olon.) e)
from canvas (Bashkiria). On breed: a) long (Bashkiria); b) to knees (Bashkiria);
c) short (Olon.); d) with a sable or marten collar (Olon.). On compliance to any
type of clothes: a) type of a wedding cape (Arkh.) ; b) type of a fur coat (Olon.); c)
type of fragmentary clothes (Volog.) ; d) type of easy clothes (Volog., Bashkiria).
Ependytes in the meaning of ”elt”, “koshma” acts in the following versions:
a) house milling cloth, felt (Tamb., Kursk., Ulyan., Kostr.,); b) felt, koshma of
triangular form (Penz.) ; c) the panel of felt used as a blanket, bedding (Voron.,
Ependytes as “the roof on four slopes” is widespread in the Vyatka, Moscow,
Olonets, Sverdlovsk and Kamchatka dialects.
Ependytes in phraseologically connected meaning is noted in the Vologda,
Kaluga and Gorky dialects.
The word ependytes in the Russian dialects has rather a considerable zone
of distribution: from Arkhangelsk to Kursk and Voronezh and from Kaluga to
Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), but it is noted not by the continuous massif and
separate islands. Generally it is used in the central part of the European territory,
where, by the way, the meaning “felt”, “koshma” is mostly observed. In the north
of the European part the word ependytes is more widely widespread in the meaning
“clothes”, “capes” (Olon., Arkh., Volog.,). In the Olonets dialects ependytes mostly
140 141 серия ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ. 2014. №3 ISSN 1811-1823. Вестник ПГУ means clothes. A smaller concentration of meanings is connected with the Tula
and Kaluga dialects.
On the one hand, gradually losing active positions of functioning in the
initial meanings, on the other hand, - ependytes managed to give life to a number
of the semantic derivatives, which inherited a main component feature of the
Turkic etymon – “to cover”, “to serve as a covering”. Ependytes gained an ability
of absolutely another terminological use keeping only genetically the remote
communication with a primary source. Analyzed lexeme, having undergone
determinologization process, switched over, thus, from one “specialty” in others.
So, the word ependytes means: 1) at melting plants an oven case, a casing, the
first two rows of bricks covering the arches of the melting furnace; 2) leathery and
mucous, sometimes webby, gristly or muscular cover fitting a body of mollusks
and emitting carbonic lime for formation of a sink; 3) in the Russian architecture:
hip tent imperial or spike roof; 4) species of plants - epanechny cherries: “this
breed of cherry covered by the leaves as if it was ependytes... “. So, as a result
of movement of semantic accent the word ependytes distributed in metallurgical,
architectural and biological terminology.
During active existing in the speech the word ependytes was characterized
by a considerable circle of derivatives: yapanchitsa, epanechnik, epanechny,
epanechka, epanchishko, epanchovy, epanchishche, epanechkovy, epanchik that
disappeared generally before an exit from the use of the most making basis. A
peculiar exception is the form of subjective judgment epanchishko that endured the
source as it combined the name of reality with its estimated characteristic. A dialect
word ependytes – “a type of tatter” - reflected a reaction to change the functioning
of the reality itself. By the way, a similar semantic evolution is observed in some
other lexemes: azyam → “a tatter dress” (Olon.); “too wide clothes” (Perm.) ;
armyak → “clothes of a cheap appearance” and “very worn clothes” (Smol.) ;
homespun coat → “type of tatter” (Don., Olon., Vlad., Volog.) ; beshmet → “a
bad, torn coat”, “shabby outer clothing of men” (Psk.), etc. All this testifies to
the semantic shifts dictated by the functional and style changes of borrowings.
In the Belarusian writing apancha (eponcha, ependytes, oponcha, opancha) is
noted since 1508 in the meaning of “a wide raincoat without sleeves” [14, p. 113].
The modern lexicographic sources of the Belarusian language define a lexeme as
“cape, coat” and rank it to the historicisms [15, p. 124].
Abroad the dialect manifestation of an analyzed Turkism reflects Ukrainian,
in which a lexeme acting in the following options: opancha, oponcha, opon’cha, opanche, pancha, ependytes, finds a certain specialization of designation. So,
in the Poltava dialects opancha is known as “the name of ancient clothes” and
“material”; in Chernigiv region pancha – “an ancient long and wide cape”; in
Cherkashchina – “an outer men’s wear”; in Hmelnitsky area the word opancha is noted as “long clothes, several times belted”; in the former Kherson province
opancha, epancha is “a wide, long raincoat without sleeves”; in Galitsky dialects
opon’cha means “a top caftan”.
In the speech of Batyuks opancha, opanche is fixed as “the outer gray
clothing”. In the Boykovsky dialects opancha, oponcha combines a number of
compliances: “a long armyak from rough cloth”, “the outer men’s wear worn
by szlachta”, “a raincoat from gray cloth behind with assemblies and “klobuk”
(pelerine) worn by prosperous peasants”; “the outer men’s wear, a type of
armyak, before chumarka, now jacket” [16, p. 57]. According to the materials of
O.Makarushka, the Turkism meant “winter furniture” [15, p. 8], and according
to the Dictionary of Ukrainian of the seventieth years, opancha is “an overcoat
with sleeves and a blowup from factory cloth”; “the Cossack and shepherd’s felt
short clothes or sewed from fur of foals”. The form opanchina, according to the
materials of Ukrainian of the past and the beginning of this century acted in the
meaning “bad ependytes” [17, p. 55], in what there can be observed an identical
semantic shift from the Russian producing basis reflecting an existence of the
general international types of associative communications.
For Russian in comparison with Ukrainian the Turkisms as the name of herbs
is more indicative: in A. Annenkov’s Botanical dictionary there are given some
examples in the form sultan and especially sultanchik (s) in various compatibility
(red, grass, blue, field) connecting with former Ufa, Yaroslavl, Kostroma and
Petersburg provinces [18, p. 25].
Apparently the similarity and distinction of all-East Slavic Turkisms are
shown, first of all, in its functional and stylistic status.
From the point of view of typological differentiation of analyzed loans in
the East Slavic languages, in particular Polish, the certain formal and semantic
versions reflecting the system originalities of languages become more apparent.
Formally the majority of the Turkisms correspond to the East Slavic
languages, however, it not always have an identical semantic correlation. The
substantial volume of a lexeme in one language seldom becomes covered by
the substantial volume of externally similar, correlated couple. So, there can be
distinguished the following types of semantic relations among interlingual loans
in case of the coincidence of lexemes:
1) general and similar correlation (sarafan, trousers, inkle, etc.),
2) partial correlation (cap, bull, basma, etc.),
3) historical and conditional correlation (armyak, kutas, etc.), 4) zero correlation (Russ. dial. stocking – “cone-shaped bunt”; Bel. Poless.
aventail – “crested lark”, etc.).
The supervisions show that the forms coincide, as a rule, and semantic
correlation either is absent, or too remote and therefore conditional, or it is shown
only in partial coincidence of meanings that allows to speak about the development
of interlingual homonymy: Russian heels – “heels” also it is Bel. Poless. heels