Операции Советских Вооруженных Сил в период Великой Отечест-
венной войны. 1941-1945гг. Том 1. М.1958. 640-бет.
Герои битвы за Кавказ. Издательство «Ирыстон». Цхинвали. 1975.
Ресей Федерациясы Қорғаныс министрлігі Орталық мұрағаты (РФ
ҚМОМ). қ.1149. тізбе 976674. іс.1. п.2
Ресей Федерациясы Қорғаныс министрлігі Орталық мұрағаты
(РФ ҚМОМ). қ.1149. тізбе 42200. іс1. п.15-16, п.92, п.98.
РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 1. іс 2. п.10, п.2, п.1.
Герои битвы за Кавказ. 272-бет.
395-сд «Красный Воин» қызылармиялық газеті №51. 22.04.1943ж.
РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 2. іс 5. п.10, 102, 198.
РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 2. іс 5. п.10
РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 2. іс 5. п.79
РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 2. іс 5. п.179-198
РФ ҚМОМ қ.1721. тізбе 1. іс. 6. п.53-54
А.И. Исмаилов, С.Н. Алибек ПОДВИГИ ГЕНЕРАЛА С. РАХИМОВА НА ФРОНТЕ В статье приведены данные о генерале С.Рахимове, который в период Великой
Отечественной войны 1941-1945 гг. из среды казахстанского национального офицерства
первым был удостоен высокого звания генерал-майора.
Ключевые слова: офицер, дивизия, звания, армия, война. A.I. Ismailov, S.N. Alibek FEATS OF EXPLOITS GENERAL S. RAKHIMOV AT THE FRONT In this article there are provided data about the general S.Rakhimov who was awarded by the 1
high rank “Major general” among Kazakhs in the period of the Great Patriotic War in 1941-1945y.
Key words: officer, division, ranks, army, war
UDC 94 (574) “17/19”:32.019.5
Хабаршы №1 - 2013 ж.
U.Т. Аkhmetova - Doctor of Historical Science West Kazakhstan State University after M. Utemisov (Uralsk) Е-mail: Ulzhan.email@example.com
THE HISTORY OF KAZAKHSTAN AND IOSIF ANTONOVICH KASTANYE Abstract. The article is considering the scientific activity of the French scientist
I.A. Castanie in the beginning of the 20-th century, who was a member of the Scientific archives
Commission in Orenburg. In his studies I.A. Castano paid great attention to the archeological and
Key words: archaeology, ethnography, history, archive.
Iosif Antonovich Kastanye was famous for his research works. He is a French
scientist, who dealt with research and collection of ancient monuments of Kazakh
history. In 1901 he came to Orenburg, where he worked as a teacher of French in the
gymnasium for men and in the cadet corps after Nepluyev. That year he began to
take part in the social and scientific life of the city. The summary of this research
work “The History of Para (Brazil) published in the bulletin of the scientific council
in Santiago and the investigation extracts of the Ethnographic Museum Director
Geld” which had been published in the “Works” of Orenburg Scientific Archives
Committee (Works of OSAC – U.A.) was delivered at a regular meeting on the 3
December in 1903. The scientist reports that the origin of the American Indians is in
the focus of his attention. According to the investigation results, the similarity of the
first inhabitants of America with the nation that is similar to Mongols. Due to Geld’s
scientific data the Indians lived on the banks of the river Kunan. By the investigation
results of two artificial caves that were called “yaka” the things found that at the
cemeteries of Orenburg province in Russia were like those of the caves. For instance,
the stone axes made of nephrite and other things that were similar to those of neolith
epoch attract the scientists’s attention [1, pp. 171-173].
The scientist points out to the fact that similarities in the history of Kazakh
people and American Indians take place.
I.A.Kastanye worked more than 10 years as a member of Orenburg
Scientific Archives Committee and he was busy with collecting scientific
information about Kazakh ancient monuments and systematized them.
By the permission of Archeological Committee of St.Petersburg and
according to the task given by the OSAC, he started to fulfill archeological
research works in Torgai oblast.
In accordance with the order №322 of May 24, 1904 the Archeological
Committee sent a letter to the head of the department that led the construction jobs
in the northern part of Orenburg-Tashkent railway. The letter read that the proper
member of Archeological Committee, I.A. Kastanye had been sent on a mission to
Torgai oblast to do archeological targets. In connection with it, they asked to give
him a constant admission card from June 1 to August 10, 1904 in the northern part
of Orenburg-Tashkent railway. In this regard the head of the department of the
Orenburg-Tashkent railway informed the Head of the Orenburg Archives
Committee that he would provide I.A. Kastanye with the 11 class free ticket by the
order of №2029 of June 2, 1904 for the train №136 for a year [3, p-59].
I.A. Kastanye became the member of Orenburg Scientific Committee in
1902 and worked in the body of archeological expedition in Kazakh steppes, he
Хабаршы №1 - 2013 ж.
also worked as a museum keeper and an assistant Head Commission in the years
1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1909, 1911.
In 1904 Kastanye chose the nearest uezd Aktobe in his first trip to Kazakh
land. There were 7 historical places: Karsaqbas in Elek bolus, the castles on the
coast Baisholak, Shieli cave in Aktobe uezd, the ancient Shieli monuments which
are given in the form of plaited stones, Ashysai burial mound in Aktobe bolus, the
burial mound near the Zhaman Kargaly, the grave twisting three long lengths of
stones near the coast of Zhaksy Kargaly and he researched these places [4, p-188].
The scientist made a report on his trip that in June, 1904 he went to
Turkestan from Orenburg [5, p-176]. This trip was in Tashkent and Samarkand
across the Kazakh land and then he returned back. After this trip at the regular
meeting on March 9, 1905 he made an album of photos which were taken there in
the report and handed in his papers [6, p-250].
Kastanye took a photo camera with him during the trip in order to collect a
lot of documents about Kazakh history. His photos which were taken in Turkistan
journey, such as “Kyrgyz council”, “Church in Aktobe”, “The house of a rich
Kazakh”, “The Kazakh school in nomad’s tent”, “Kazakh steppe”, “Kazakh girls”,
“A horseman”, “Steppe Journey”, “Ploughing”, “Mullahs” describe Kazakh life in
century. Those photographies belong to the group of valuable photo
At a regular meeting held on May 13, 1905 the Head of the Committee
A.B.Popov asked to give him 15-20 roubles to finish the archeological expedition.
They understood the importance of the archeological investigations and came to
the conclusion to provide them with money.
On September 9, 1909 Kastanye made a report “Archeological works in
Aktobe in the summer of 1909”. He made a speech about some excavates of
ancient monuments. Then he gave in a scull of a human being and different things
made of copper and iron, which were found during the expeditions [7, p-308].
Later, in his work “Ancient monuments of the Kyrghyz steppe and the
Orenburg region” the investigations conducted on the Kazakh land and the work of
the researchers of this region was collected, and was published in 1910 in Orenburg.
I.A.Kastanye in the introduction of his work clearly pointed out: "ancient monuments
of Torgai, Ural, Akmolinsk, Semipalatinsk regions, the Bokei Horde of the
Astrakhan province were included in this work and also some parts of Syrdarya
region after the order of 1868 and this work was written only till 1911 [8, p-1].
I.A.Kastanye, later, in the letter written to M. Shokai about his work he
remembers: “living among you, having witnessed grief and hopes, I admired the
Kyrgyz-Kazakhs, Bashkirs, Tatars, Uzbeks and other people. I dedicated the book
“Antiquities of the Kirghiz steppe and the Orenburg region” and other my books to
courageous Turkic and Mongolian tribes which take a special place in the history”, -
expressed his opinion [9, p-9]. Further, studying I.A.Kastanye's help to the activity
of the commission, we learn that, in 1911 the chairman assistant I.A.Kastanye
having made the list of a paleontology department of a museum, made the catalog
of medals and money of the museum [10, p-17].
If we look for the facts about the private life of I.A.Kastanye who studied the
ancient history of the Kazakh steppes and devoted several articles, we find very
little information. We may find some information about the author in the articles of
the historian K. Esmagambetov.
Хабаршы №1 - 2013 ж.
I.A.Kastanye whom we know - the French scientist Joseph-Antoine
Kastanye was born in 1875 in a small town Gayak, in France. In 1899 he moved to
Russia, and lived for two years in the Caucasus [9, p-9]. He brought great benefit,
having participated in the work of Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission.
At the regular meeting on October 10, 1912 the chairman of the commission
A.V.Popov having read I.A.Kastanye's letter, reported that he was saying goodbye
to the members of the archival commission. Connected with it, they sent a letter
of thanks to I.A.Kastanye for his great work and benefits in the work of the
Commission. In 1912 I.A.Kastanye moved to Turkistan. In Tashkent he joined the
Turkistan society of fans of archeology, the next year he was a member of
Turkistan department of the Russian imperial geographical society. One of the
organizations made contribution in studying of the Kazakh history - Turkistan
society of fans of archeology - was a scientific center which was engaged in
collecting historic facts about Central Asia, the Southern Kazakhstan and Zhetisu
region. I.A.Kastanye in the period of his staying in Tashkent published a set of the
works, which had materials about historical monuments and ethnography of the
Kazakh steppe. The scientist’s research regarding the Kazakh history can be found
in the scientific articles of S.M.Gorshenina.
Thus, I.A.Kastanye's scientific investigations about Kazakhs valuable in the
history of Kazakhstan.
Report on the state of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission in
1903// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Typo-lithography of I.I.Evfimovsky –
Mirovitsky, 1905. – Issue 14. – p. 220.
Orenburg Regional State Museum of the Russian Federation (OrRSM).
96-., 1-., 51-, 55-.
(OrRSM). 96-., 1-., 51-, 59-.
Kastanye I.A. Report on an expedition to Aktobe county summer 1904//
Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Typo-lithography of I.I.Evfimovsky – Mirovitsky,
1905. – Issue 14. – p. 220.
Kastanye I.A. Report on trip to Turkistan// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg:
Steam typo-lithography of PH.G.Karimov, 1906. - Issue 16. – p. 296.
Report on the state of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission for
1905// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Steam typo-lithography of PH.G.Karimov,
1906. - Issue 16. – p. 296.
Report on the state of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission.
Compiled by the Governor of Affairs P.A.Neznyamov for 1909// Works of OSAC. –
Orenburg: Typo-lithography “Karimov, Khusainov & Co”, 1911. - Issue 23. – p. 329.
Kastanye I.A. Ancient monuments of the Kyrghyz steppe and the
Orenburg region// Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Typo-lithography Partnership
“Karimov, Khusainov & Co”, 1910. - Issue 22. – p.321.
Esmaganbetov K., Isakhan G. The Frenchman who was born in the town
of Gayak and wandered about the Kazakh steppes// Egemen Kazakstan, January
The report on structure and activity for 1911. Compiled by the ruler of
the Commission I.S.Shukshintsev // Works of OSAC. – Orenburg: Printing house
Gorshenina S.M. Central Asia in the work of Joseph-Antoine Kastanye. –
Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (Париж, 7.03.1997)
Ұ.Т.Ахметова И.А. КАСТАНЬЕ ЖӘНЕ ҚАЗАҚСТАН ТАРИХЫ
Мақалада Қазақстанды ХХ ғ. бас кезінде зерттеген француз ғалымы И.А. Кастаньенің
ғылымы туралы талданған. И.А. Кастанье тапқан материалдарын баспасөзге жариялады. Ол
Орынбор ғылыми мұрағаттық комиссия мүшесі болды. Ғалым археологиялық және
этнографиялық мәселелерге назар аударды.
Түйін сөз: археология, этнография, тарих, мұрағат.
У.Т. Ахметова И.А. КАСТАНЬЕ И ИСТОРИЯ КАЗАХСТАНА В статье росматривается научная деятельность французского ученого И.А. Кастанье в
начале ХХ в., который был членом Обенбургской научно-архивной комиссии. В своих
исследованиях И.А. Кастанье уделял большое внимание археологическим и этнографическим
Ключевые слова: археология, этнография, история, архив.
U. Akhmetova - Doctor of Historical Science West Kazakhstan State University after M. Utemisov (Uralsk) Zh. Mukhangalieva - Candidate of history sciences, Е-mail: Zhan_2102@mail.ru
THE ETHNOGRAPY OF THE LITTLE ZHUZ IN THE EXPLORERS’ WORKS OF XIX CENTURY
Abstract. It was analyzed works devoted to ethnography of Kazakh’s of The Little Zhus.
Also there are described spacious materials about the Kazakh etymology, the Kazakhs’ ethno-genesis,
rus and tribes contained The Little Zhus and traditional rights.
Key words: ethnographic researches, Russian militaries, travelers, scientists, The Little Zhuz,
customs and traditions, traditional right, ethno-genetic.
Collecting and researching of materials about Kazakh ethnographic
concerning to XIX century was one of the main tasks for Russian science. The
reasons of arise such problem were to use Kazakh steppe as colonial location and
as the raw material for Russian empire. That’s why Russian empire organized
military, natural, geographic and ethnographic researchers.
In the 20
of XIX century The Russian Empire sent trade and
diplomatic embassies, organized by tens of military and scientific expeditions. One
of such kind of expedition was organized to Buhara in 1820-1821 by leading of
A. F. Negry. Though the main aim of embassy was to pay attention to trade and
commercial parts, in addition to this, it was to pay attention to natural resources, to
the political state in Central Asia, to their governors although it had been given the
task to determine their attitude with Buhara, Afghanistan, Iran and Osman Empire
Хабаршы №1 - 2013 ж.
. It had been included specialist of nature and geography E.A. Eversman, captain
of General Staff E.K. Meiendorf, Lieutenant V.D. Volhovsky to Negry’s embassy.
With these staff E.K. Meiendorf and E.A. Eversman gave a lot of interesting facts
about roving Kazakhs from Orenburg till Buhara.
E.K. Meiendorf (1796-1865), in his notebook, wrote about Kazakhs’ customs
and traditions, about their everyday life, food and its methods of cooking, he also
described ways of hunting to saigak and wild boar, about barymta, (barymta author:
seizing cattle among turk people. Way of the vengeance for the offence or as the
recompense to the caused damage), about women, about Russian captives’ state in
Kazakh villages, wrote about management in Kazakh steppe. “ … Often at night,
sitting on the stone they look to the moon and sing sad songs. It was described the
past of the Kazakhs, historic and legendary national heroes on these songs… ”,
Russian traveler said [2, p. 193]. He opened general contents of lyrical Kazakh
songs. Also he was one of among Russian researchers who confirmed that Kazakhs
and Kirghizes mustn’t be called with one name; he said that they are different.
The great numbers of rich ethnographic materials are retained in his third
book. In the chapter “Travel from Orenburg to Buhara” he gave some interesting
ethnographic facts about ways of hunting to saigak and about the everyday life of
Aryngazy sultan’s village . We can see a lot of ethnographic facts and materials
in Eversman’s diary, published in German, who took part in this expedition as a
member of Russian geographic society .
Difficult achievements of Russian geographic society in researching Kazakh
nation was linked with the name of one of founders of Russian geographic society
A. I. Levshin (1799-1879). His first manuscripts about Kazakh is “Way notes”,
“Meeting with khan of kirghiz-kaisak orda” were published in 1820 [4, p. 551].
There were described ways of servicing guests and hospitality, types of old kazakh
songs, about their definitions. In 1823-1824 it was published his book “Some facts
about ancient town Saraishyk” [4, p. 556] and in 1825 it was published his article
with title “about education in kirghiz-kaisak: fragments from descriptions of
Kazakh ordas” [4, p. 557].
He was published with important article “Names of Kirghiz-kazakh and its
differences from usual and savage kirghizes” [4, p. 558]. At this article he
described real name of Kazakh and usage of name of kirghiz instead of Kazakh. He
also underlined that usage of name kirghiz instead of Kazakh would be groundless
after. He was also agree with E.K. Meiendorf with this facts.
The third part of his fundamental research “Description of Kirghiz-kaisak or
kirghiz-kazakh’s ordas and steppes” was regarded to the Kazakh ethnography .
The ethnographic part of monograph contains of 32 chapters, it was caused main
and important ethnographic goals.
Among the other scientists who had been researched ethnography of
Kazakhs of The Little Zhus was G.G. fon-Hens. He had great deal of merit.
Though Hens’s profession was military engineer, at first years of his work in
Kazakh steppes, he conducted works concerning to natural and mineral resources.
Therefore, he had made many archival manuscripts about history, ethnography,
linguistic, folklore and economy of the Kazakhs. We can name work “Origin of the
Kazakhs and its derivation” among them. In this work the author paid attention to
the kazakh’s terminology used in some ethnographic fables, he explained rus of the
little zhus, and their inhabited locality .
Хабаршы №1 - 2013 ж.
Even with this kind of prosperity there were not enough and were not rich
collection of materials concerning to history of 20
of XIX century. They
were only interested in rus and tribes structures, their locality and everyday life.
Culture and art were not enough discussed.
Russian researchers of the second part of XIX century dedicated their works
to the problems of mode of life, traditions and traditional rights in The Litlle Zhuz.
Among these researchers was Russian office L.Meier, on his work named
“Orenburg department of Kirghiz steppe” he gave some information about
population of the little zhus, derivations of the little zhuz, and about their locality,
amount of rus, motto, stock breeding, hunting and agriculture .
The head of Orenburg department of Russian geographic society L.F.
Balluzek on his work “Traditional customs which have had the power of the law in
small kirghiz orda” contained collections of materials concerning court affair, civil
and criminal rights . The work was succeed in collectors of those materials were
Kazkh aristocrats. Thus, Kazakh sultans describing traditional rights were not
Russian sciences were also interested in problems of Kazakh ethno-genetic.
But they couldn’t reveal its whole definition. Only some of its aspects were added.
Among of the authors who had researched kazakhs’ ethno-genetic was ethnographer
A.N. Haruzin. He was famous with his works devoted to ethnography and
anthropology of Bokei Orda. Concerning to the materials of M.H. Dulaty, which
were translated by Veliyminov-Zernov, he was mistaken thinking that the Kazakh, as
political union, was founded only in the middle of XV century. [5, p. 42].
Making conclusion, from collected and analyzed materials, written research
works, outlines and monographs, a lot of expeditions and researches there were
given large volume to the researching the little zhus Kazakhs in the ethnographic
position by Russian researchers. Russian and world history with the helping of
E.K. Meiendorf, A.I. Levshin, L.F. Balluzek and another scientist would have
extensive and real materials about the Kazakh. Using and discussing about it would
be large achievement nowadays.