Abstract. National character as an object of cultural studies is one of the most important problems of modern science. He is a phenomenon and a key determinant of which is defining the future of civilization, its ability or failure of civilized education that ensures a high level of development, as well as to predict the likelihood of the collapse of its fundamental socio-cultural grounds in the future. People, ethnic group and nation are the subject and the object of culture. Creating a culture of peace, which is surrounded by man, the latter makes them public and individual character, where the individuality of cultural objects is features of human nature. The culture of each ethnic group has the imprint of the individually-psychological stereotypes of individuals of this ethnic group, cultural archetype. Creating cultural areas, they make themselves felt in all spheres of human activity, but is most evident in his everyday life. Keywords: ethnicity, national character, the formation of ethnic groups, especially the national character.
The term "ethnos" is understood and widely regarded in modern science as a social,
biological and socio-cultural concept. In the early and mid XX century ethnic problems
presented considerable features of interest to Russian scientists such as S.M. Shirokogorov, L.N
Gumilyev, Y. Bromley, A.G. Zdravomyslov. It is a well-known fact that the word "ethnos" was
used to describe not only small nations, but also the so-called super-ethnos. The modern
understanding of the word "ethnicity" is identical to the concept "world nations" and is perceived
as a synonym for "people" or "nation." All research work in this scientific area lies within two
predominant branches of modern ethnology. Thus, the first branch of the research on this
phenomenon was represented by the concept "biological units", suggested by L.N. Gumileyv; in
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ 1.
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делениях и родовых тамгах, а также исторических данных и начинающихся
антропологических исследованиях // Живая старина. Вып. П1-1У. СПб., 1894;
Харузин Н.К. К вопросу о происхождении киргизского народа // Этнографическое
обозрение. - 1895. - №3, - Кн. XXVI. -с.49-92;
Алпысбес М.А. Казахское шежире как исторический источник. Автореферат дис.
доктора ист. Наук. - Алматы, 2007. - с. 16 и др.
Алимбай Н. Община как социальный механизм жизнеобеспечения в кочевой
этноэкосистеме //, Муканов М.С., Аргынбаев X. традиционная культура жизнеобеспечения
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Қазақ өркениеті / Казахская цивилизация. №2, 2015 ж.
the second one ethnos was treated in a doctrine by Y. Bromley as a "socio-cultural
Currently, ethnic group formation can be divided into two types: 1) anthropometric
biogenetic reality, which represents ethnic groups as "a certain set of people united by common
origin, history, language, culture, mentality" and 2) the socio-cultural affinity, in which ethnic
groups are certain sets of people, which are characterized by common language, culture, tradition
and ethnonym" regardless of where they live [1, p. 3].
The “Ethnos” Theory by Gumileyv is, in fact, an extension of the doctrine of ethnic groups
by S. Shirokogorov. Gumileyv treats ethnos as "a biological unit ", " a natural community" ,
"ethnos is a stable , a naturally formed group of people as opposed to all other similar
communities, determined by a sense of complementarity , and a different kind of behaviour
stereotype , which changes regularly over time"[2, s.570] . Scientist attaches great importance to
human interaction with nature, emphasizing the influence of landscape on human organisms. He
is firmly convinced that the environment shapes the character of human behavior and contributes
to the organization of a linguistic community. Ethnos due to the connection between the life of a
community and the natural landscape and social relations is defined as a phenomenon related to
geography, although its culture is regarded as a social phenomenon. In ethnos the scientist notes
the psychological nature, insofar as people in the community are formed on the basis of
categories such as " the spirit of nation ", " the call of the wild ", relating to the mental health of
man. The main feature that determines the essence of the ethnic group, is the opposition of the
members of one ethnic group to all other existing communities. As soon as the community
identifies itself from the rest of society, this particular community becomes immediately aware
of itself as a single ethnic group. The antithesis of "us – not us" is an indicator of separating one
from another language community; it also promotes itself as an independent representation of
society with a certain internal structure. The presence of the internal structure of the ethnic group
" defines the norms of relations between the collective and the individual among themselves ",
hence the stereotypical behaviour, which is the basis of the concept of " ethnos" [2, s.570 ]
It should be noted that V. Bromley’s vision of ethnicity as " a historically developed group
of people inhabiting a certain area, united by common features of culture (language), psychology
and awareness of their unity
and differences from all other similar entities ( self-awareness ) ,
fixed in an ethnonym. " [3, p.6 ] . Bromley comes up with an idea about the common origin of
the members of the ethnic group as one of the system-forming components of ethnos. The
presence of a specific territory inhabited by the same speech community, should be regarded as
the basic condition of an ethnic group formation. The scientist perceives ethnos as a socio-
cultural phenomenon, as an integral system related to socio-economic factors . Thus, culture,
identity, self-awareness and language are defined as the actual ethnic characteristics; common
territory , economic ties and statehood - as social factors of ethnicity . Ethnos functioning is
made possible by the presence of a diachronic type of information links which facilitate ethnic
continuity and intergenerational communication.
It is believed that the word “ethnos” itself can be regarded as one of the factors of its
unification. All the hypotheses concerning the origin of the Russian word "
Русь" may be
divided into two groups: 1) the ethnonym emerged among the Slavs on their ancestral territory,
or 2) the ethnonym was borrowed from other languages. B.A Rybakov, the proponent of the
former version, believes that the etymology of «
Русь» and the hydronym “Ros”(Рос) (a
tributary of the Dnieper river) are in a way connected with each other. Moreover, the scientist is
unshakably convinced that the Russian proper name “
Русь” is of Slavic origin, mentioning how
this word changed phonetically over time (from the sixth to the eleventh century) . In ancient
times, this word sounded like "Ros" («
рос») and served as the name of one of the tribes of Slavs
living on the banks of the Ross River . As stated in the chronicles , in the sixth century historians
mention the "Ros" people (
народ Рось); in the ninth century - "Russian tribes " (российские
племена); in the eleventh century - " Roskaya truth." (Роськая правда). Formed from different
Қазақ өркениеті / Казахская цивилизация. №2, 2015 ж.
Slavic tribes, Slavic nation received the name "Ros tribe" [4, p.156 ] . As can be seen above, the
origin of the word is closely linked with the idea of the statehood of Slavic tribes.
According to a Russian expert on the history, V. Kluchevsky, the ethnonym “Russ” passed
the following way : first, it served to denote a particular territory , then - the name of the people
who lived on the territory of the same name. Initially, it was realized as a geographical factor ,
i.e. as a well-defined territory inhabited by Slavs , then the name acquired a political significance
- Russia was perceived as a certain community , which has its ruler and territory. Only then did
the name acquire an ethnic meaning, because that was the name of the whole land, inhabited by
Slavs, who had been formed as an ethnic group.
Y.Stepanov in his research on the etymology of the word “
Русь”, adheres to V.
Kliuchevsky’s point of view, considering the latter’s evidence most convincing and coinciding
with the results of his own research work. The word "
Русь " as the name of the Russian state was
used as an ethnographic name : Russ is a tribe ; a social one : Russ is a class; a geographical one:
Russ is a certain part of the state; a political one: Russ is the State. According to him, this word
was borrowed from the Finnish language and means "the people from Scandinavia." In Finnish,
it meant " squad ", whereby the scientist sees links between the words «
дружина» found in the Russian language [5, p . 7].
The word " Russian " is a substantivised adjective which means "belonging or related to
Russ." According to the findings by A. Melnikova , in each language a particular way of
perceiving the world is put into its grammatical categories. Originally, " Russian" meant "
Russian citizenship ", then the adjective acquired the meaning "one who belongs to Russ." Such
a unique case of fixing the term in the language enables the scientist to explain the uniqueness of
the Russian ethnic group. A.Melnikova goes on to say that the Russian nation is fundamentally
different from all other nations, because if others are a separate, specific kind, the "Russians” are
a specific feature rather than a national sign " [6 . 6] . "Russian” is, rather, a definition of
personality itself; "Russian" is not an ethnicity, but rather certain features of the mentality. In
order to understand the specific features of language interpretation of reality, it is necessary to
know cultural attitudes of a particular ethnic group . The history of the Russian ethnos confirms a
non-standard way of the development of living space within the boundaries of an area, which is
home to several communities assimilated into one linguistic community. Certain features of the
mentality inherent in the vast majority of members of the given community, have a number of
similar specific features, combined in the word " Russian "  .
The term " ethnos " is a point of considerable interest for modern Kazakh scientists insofar
as an adequate assessment of ethnic and inter-ethnic processes of modern society hinges largely
on the understanding of the term. In contrast to such widely known concepts as those of "nation"
, "people", "ethnicity", each of which have their definite explanations, the term " ethnos " makes
scientists' opinions vary greatly. The problems of ethnicity and ethnos in Kazakhstan’s science
were considered by Argynbaev H. , D. Kshibekov , A. Nysanbaev , N. Massanov , M. Kozybaev
, N. Alimbai , M. Muhanov , Seidimbek A. , A. Kodar , N. Baitenova , O.Aytmagambetova .
The concept of " ethnos " in research by D. Kshibekov has been treated as a form of
collective existence , which is formed naturally; self- sustainability mechanism ensuring its
stability , which is understood by him as the process of transferring social norms of their
community , language and traditions to the new generation as a result of marriage consummation
and family making. An important condition of self-sustainability is the presence of a common
language and territory. Ethnos, as a specific community of people, has elements of a single
culture - religion, traditions, customs, art etc. According to the scientist , ethnic identity is a basic
feature of the community , " ethnos is not only the integrity of the objective components , but
also only that set of people , which is aware of itself as such and which distinguishes itself from
other similar communities " [7 , p. 228] .
According to N. Baitenova , " ethnos” is a complex dynamic system , as opposed to other
similar communities , having a common origin myth, and which is based on different stereotypes
of behaviour, self-awareness" [8 , p.39 ] . The complexity of the term "ethnos " can be explained
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by the intricate interweaving of sociological , biological, geographical and psychological factors
in the concept. Each ethnic group is a dynamic phenomenon, i.e. undergoes certain stages of
development. Ethnos is naturally a community of people who are connected with each other and
society on the whole. The researcher, in the wake of other scientists, calls the principle of
division between "ours" and "theirs" a defining feature. Another marker of ethnos is the presence
of the myth of their common origin . Thus, the structure of an ethos consists of the following
signs : the opposition “theirs” - "ours" , the presence of a certain myth of common ancestry ,
behaviour stereotypes of the members in a given community and self-identity.
The psychologist O.Kh. Aymagambetova from Kazakhstan treats the concept of ethnos as
follows: " ethnos is a biological phenomenon and not a social and marginal one, i.e. lying on the
boundary of the biosphere and sociosphere "[9 , p.15 ] . According to the researcher, the term "
ethnos " in ethnopsychology should be explained taking into account the peculiarities of
psychology of an ethnic community . This social psychology can be accounted for by the
presence of individual and group consciousness, "determined by their ethnos." Ethnos, as a social
organism, emerges on the basis of common territory, language and psychology.
According to A. Seydimbek in Kazakhstan’s science ethnos is mainly understood as "... a
large number of people who have grown up in a certain locality, which is their historical
homeland , and who have a common language, culture, psychology; who are aware of their
community , unity, with its ethnonym " [ 10 , p. 93]. It is known that not each separate
community grows into an ethnos . According to the theory of ethnicization, lifestyles and an
economic-cultural type of production should be taken into consideration for the formation of an
ethnic group. These factors possess an ethnos-differentiating property. During the development
of a community a specific dominant emerges, which makes the group similar to others, thus
lending it this undeniable property of ethnos. Thus, the ethnicization is the separation of a social
group from the conglomerate for some special features politically, culturally and economically
determined" [10, p.122 ] . The pivotal feature of ethnicization is the "we" and "they" opposition
,which ensures that the company incorporates significant ethnic features characteristic of a
particular group of people.
Among many definitions of the term "ethnos" in the modern world and Kazakkstan’s
science we believe the following definition to be the most appropriate: "Ethnos is a naturally and
historically constituted, stable community of people. The main conditions of the formation of an
ethnos are the presence of a common language, territory, history, economics, spiritual and
material culture, identity, mentality, religion, psychology, demography. Ethnic core, periphery
and diaspora should be pointed out in the structure of ethnos. "[11, s.389]. This definition is
characterized by the presence of all the main components of the concept of "ethnos." This
understanding of the ethnic group as a socio-cultural education and a structural phenomenon
corresponds to modern ideas about this concept of ethnology. The concept of "Kazakh ethnos" is
synonymous with "Kazakh people" and has two meanings: Ethnikos and ethno-social organism.
By Kazakh Ethnikos we mean an ethnic community of Kazakh living abroad; by ethno-social
organism - all the Kazakhs living in territory of their home state. We believe that the most
precise definition in Kazakhstan’s science has been suggested by M. Absattarov: "Kazakh ethnos
is a historically constituted, mainly on the territory of Kazakhstan, a stable group of people who
have common basic and special features in culture, psychology; who are conscious of their
integrity and distinction from other ethnic entities "[12, p.11-23].
The Ethnonym "Kazakh" has a rich and complex history. However, there is still no
universal version of its origin and meaning. According to the classification of ethnonyms
proposed by V. Nikonov, ethnonyms can be divided into several subgroups. Thus, the oldest
semantic type is self-ethnonym (
этноним-самоназвание), which served to denote the ancestral
representatives of a given ethnic group («
свои» in Russian , as opposed to strangers; Under this
particular category we can also include ethnonyms, which basically described all others as dumb,
having no distinct language; ethnonyms whose concept was similar to that of "friend." («
Then we deal with ethnonyms meaning the totem of a tribe: ancestor’s name; a particular area
Қазақ өркениеті / Казахская цивилизация. №2, 2015 ж.
inhabited by the representatives of a given ethnos; topographic ethnonyms, i.e. areas, where a
particular community lives. The next group of ethnonyms indicates signs characteristic of the
community itself (external signs, character traits, customs); ideological assessment. According to
the scientist, ethnonyms are words that obey the laws of language. History manifests itself in
ethnonyms by means of linguistic regularities [13, p.112]. Kazakhstan’s scientists’ works on
ethnology present certain features of interest. Modern ethnologists argue that the ethnonym is the
outward expression of the identity a particular ethnic group. R. Amrenova adheres to the opinion
that ethnonyms play a prominent role as the intensifiers of ethnic identity. Ethnonymy presents
itself as a centre of ideas of an ethnic group, surrounded by a halo of fairly real connotations, in
which linguistic and ethnic identities manifest themselves" [14, p.9].
The endoethnonym of Kazakh ethnic group from Russian sources has been recorded as
Kirghiz kaysak (
киргиз, каисак, киргиз-кайсак), foreigners, i.e. we can observe here the entire
range of "administrative fabrications" on the part of the officials of Tsarist Russia (G.Blagova).
The term "Kyrgyz" in relation to the Kazakhs was deliberately introduced in order to separate the
name of the Russian Cossacks from the endoenthonym of the colonized people. The need to
differentiate between the ethnonym "Kazakh" in relation to this particular nation, and the word
"Cossack" as a symbol of the military class of the Russian people, in our opinion, is beyond
doubt. A. Levshin repeatedly lamented that Kazakhs were attributed someone else's name
(Kyrgyz), which neither they themselves nor their neighbours ever mention to refer to Kazakh
people. The fact that the word "Cossack" in the Russian language is, in fact, a borrowing from
some of the Turkic languages is quite obvious. Consequently, it is necessary to be able to differ
the meaning of the word "Kazakh" as an endoethnonym from the word "Cossack", which is
treated in its own way in the Russian language world picture.
The dictionary by V.Radlov offers readers the meaning of "Kazakh as " an independent
person", "adventurer", "wanderer" [15, p.21]. G.Blagova, in her studies notes that the word
"Cossack" can be found in the dictionary by I.Sreznevsky meaning "a civilian laborer." This
name later became known in the Russian language to refer to each and every "homeless
wanderer of Russian origin." Until the XVII century the word Cossacks could refer to "freemen
from the outskirts of the Russian state." The scientist points out another meaning of the word
"Cossack" - "lightly armed free riders". Cossacks were such people. The "unnatural gap" (as
G.Blagova calls the annoying phenomenon in her research) between the endoethnonym and its
designation found in the Russian sources, was the result of an attempt at the separation of the
names of Russian Cossacks and the ethnonym denoting Kazakh people, as well as the erroneous
identification of two peoples - Kazakhs and Kirghiz as one. Many officials of the tsarist
government wrongly believed Kazakhs and Kirghiz to be members of the same tribe, which is
reflected in the written sources. Not until 1925 did Kazakh people receive their individual
ethnonym and become known as such. This ethnonym has been fixed in the name of the
Republic: the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, now the Republic of Kazakhstan. According to
V.Yudin , sources from where most information on the history of the Kazakh people is
taken, have been written in different languages - Arabic, Mongolian, Turkish, Persian and
Slavonic. This fact certainly complicates the problem of reading and processing them.
Moral values, attitudes and ideals that distinguish the members of one ethnic group from
another changed repeatedly in the process of the historical development of ethnic groups. But a
certain ethnic property, in our opinion, remains unique, specific at all points of its development
and evolution, which is what helps to separate and recognize the members of a particular
National character is a symbiosis of specific and common traits; its uniqueness is "the
result of the totality of its inherent specific forms of human mental properties" [4, p.149].
Manifestation of national character can be seen in the system of intentions - in value orientations,
needs and interests of community. This manifestation is reflected in the mentality of an ethnos
and world picture belonging to the representatives of a given ethnic group.
Қазақ өркениеті / Казахская цивилизация. №2, 2015 ж.
National character is formed on the basis of the main psychological features of the
historical development of an ethnic community at some stage. M.Mnatsakyan defines national
character as "a well-established set of features of the psychological make-up, inherent to most
members of this community, as a defining way of thinking and behavior" [4, p.192]. National
character is understood as the sameness of the conscious and unconscious, cultural and
psychological phenomena. Noting the common concepts of "national character" and "mentality"
the scientist at the same time separates them. So, in the national character mental components are
predominant, unlike mentality; national character contains an element of consciousness; the
latter also includes cultural and spiritual phenomena. Particular attention is drawn to the nature
of the relationship of history and culture, which is due to the interaction of national character as a
separate category with historical events, "national character contains history, functioning in the
present and serving existing structures" [4, s.198]. But on par with this property, national
character is defined as a well-established system of relations, encouraging members of the public
to act according to the main provisions of their culture.
According to S.Lurie, modern ethnologists see national character in the process of the
dynamic development of an ethnic group, because the constancy of features of national character
can only be determined in the course of the historical development. Unification of people in a
common cultural-mediated action can be brought about through "cultural scenarios - multilevel
and multifactor behavioral schemes" [17, p.86]. According to the scientist, the main criterion in
determining national character is the concept of "ethnic constants." Based on the layout of
"ethnic constants", at the attempt to reveal a national character ("self image" or "we", "idea of
goodness", "idea of evil", etc.) in the analysis of Russian ethnos the scientist suggests the
following description: self-image in Russian presents itself as a bearer of good; field of action -
all the space surrounding the Russians, presents itself as an area that needs to be colonized, and
the people who lived and live there to this day should be protected; the condition of the action
makes the Russians recognize themselves as fair strength; mode of action – paying moral duty to
the supreme good and, finally, the idea of the enemy - a) the one to defend themselves from, and
b) the one from whom you must protect someone; the idea of patronage - God. [17)
Some scientists believe that the Orthodox religion, nature, cultural exchanges and their
mutual influence are among the most important factors that have shaped the Russian national
character. What has made the Russian people so unique, according to Z. Sikevich, was such a
number of peculiarities as land and state structure; state of Russian culture, the polemic character
of Russian mindset, truth seeking; radical character. The marginal position of Russian culture
brought to life such a property in the Russians as “a habit of doing all their own way – “having
something their own way”. The latter is considered the property of the Russian character,
"mastering something one’s own way." Another factor which contributes to the uniqueness of the
Russian national character is the polemic character of Russian mindset. In contrast to Western
model of thinking, the Russians like to argue on any occasion. In this connection “The Special
Way of Russia” comes to the fore: "Russia is not Europe or Asia, nor anything else" [18, p.46].
The Russians are never willing to accept compromises, because in their minds a compromise
would mean going against conscience. Another factor is truth-seeking, endowing the Russians
with a special moral attitude. Morality is defined as an intrinsic part of national identity, the
formation of which was influenced by religion. Church, being practically a public institution, and
the State constituted some kind of symbiosis, preaching the public interest. The core of the
national psychology of the Russian people, according to the scientist, is represented by such
factors as the radical character. "Marginal", i,e radicalism is a moral quality of a free-willed man,
but not a free man. As it was justly noted by Z.Sikevich, freedom and will vary. Freedom, as it is
perceived in modern Russia, is not cooperation and dialogue, and "a wilful imposition of his
understanding of freedom for the sake of destruction of that of another person" [18, p.48]. Thus,
the Russian national character in the description of the scientist looks dualistic, it involves both
the images of Europe and Asia, "a fight between two images of the Russian people, relatively
speaking," Asian ", with the features of inert conservatism and rebellious spirit, and" European ",
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which recognizes and respects the rights of each individual, when “my freedom is impossible
without the freedom of my housemate or a neighbour in multinational Russia."[18, p.49].
K. Kasyanova defines the national character as "a people’s idea about themselves, as an
important element of its identity, its ethnic totality" . Describing the Russian national
character with the help of the term “accented epileptic personality type," the researcher
hypothesizes that there are certain features of an epileptic genotype of the Russian character.
Accordingly, this would be a person who has a number of contradictory traits of character:
stubborn, not very flexible, doing the job well, if undisturbed; quick-tempered, but sometimes
calm and patient. A distinctive trait of this type is, firstly, their ability to do everything their own
way and at their own time and not when their employer requests anything; and, secondly, the
ability to organize themselves and the group, and realize an idea that he takes as his own.
According to K. Kasyanova, much in the Russian national character depends on epileptoid eg
"slowness and the ability to delay the reaction, the desire to work at their own pace and
according to their plan, some "viscosity" of thinking and acting (
difficulty in switching from one type to another.
The national character of the Kazakh ethnos has been studied in the works by Elikbaeva ,
Zhukesha K. , A. Ghali , K.Zharikbaeva , F. Zharmakinoy , J. Kadin. Elikbaev was one of the
first researchers of national psychology. According to him, the national character is an indicator
of people's living conditions and the environment. The human nature is influenced not by
climatic conditions, not heredity, but by a combination of certain traits of the people. Diversity
of characters as a psychological category is due to a combination of some human traits , which
influence their actions. The scientist refers to national character, which has been formed over
centuries, as "a reflection ofpeculiar socio-historical conditions of a nation’s existence, the
aggregate of some features of the spiritual image of the people , which is, in its turn, reflected in
their characteristic representatives of the traditional forms of behavior , perception of the
environment in the psychology of this particular of nation [20 , p.89 ] . The individual way of an
ethnos to perceive the world, is reflected in the national character and in the way of perceiving
reality , some kind of looking at world events and facts in a particular light. This specificity is
reflected in the behaviour of members of a given society. According to the scientist , the national
character is subject to the will of the members of the community , which is manifested not only
in the mind , but also in the actions of people , mood, which is described by researchers as a
certain force. This force (mood) , according to N. Elikbaev, firstly, provides incitement to
commit an action, and secondly, " contributes to the unity of the nation, the development and
affirmation of her character " [20 , p.89 ] . Among positive features the Kazakh researcher points
out the following: the presence of mind, the knowledge that a person makes good use of to help
live in harmony with society. Among the negative ones the scientist mentions betrayal, greed and
talkativeness. What is deemed tragic in the life of the ethnic group is loneliness and
misunderstanding, i.e. a situation when what has been said remained misunderstood or ignored.
Loneliness can be caused by objective reasons, be it the result of natural disasters or war.
Loneliness, however, is an especially terrible phenomenon when a person deliberately moves
away from the people, the misery of which is evidenced by the Kazakh saying "
шықпас " (a voice of a lonely one is not heard.) For the collective consciousness, this
phenomenon is comparable only to a natural disaster. As tragically, like blasphemy, human
unwillingness to be guided by common sense is perceived in the minds of Kazakh, accustomed
to live by the axiom "
Қазақ сөзге тоқтаған " ( Kazakh always listened to words).
The researcher K.Zhukesh has made a significant contribution in the description of the
nature of the Kazakh ethnic group. The value of his work on the national psychology of Kazakh
ethnic group, which became a handbook for many scientists, is impossible to overestimate. The
researcher believes the following traits, found in this book on the psychology of the Kazakh
people, inherent only to them: warlike character ; penchant for art , hospitality and love for
children; mimic . Thus, the author notes that our warlike ancestors who inhabited the territory of
present-day Kazakhstan, had a very hot and passionate character -
жауынгерлік мінез ( warlike
Қазақ өркениеті / Казахская цивилизация. №2, 2015 ж.
character). The famous cry of nomads could serve as possible evidence"
ереуіл ат пен егеулі
найза " ( a saddled horse and a sharpened arrow ) , which reflects a constant readiness to defend
their land. According to the scientist, this particular trait helped nomads to save a vast territory .
[21, p.63 ] . Secondly, K.Zhukesh includes into a number of psychological features the aptitude
for the arts ( өнeршілдік ): " тұрмыс пен табиғат қазақты өнерге бейін етсе, дәстүр қазаққа
өнерді міндет етті (if life and nature attached humans to the art , the customs DEMANDED it )
" [21 , p.64 ] . Thirdly, the Kazakhs are hospitable (
қонақжайлық) . Moreover, the researcher
justifies his conclusion : every nation is undoubtedly hospitable , but if the ideas of humanism
underlie of the hospitality on the part of the representatives of other cultures, then the Kazakh
hospitality is a particular philosophy. It is based on such socio-economic and demographic
reasons as: great distances between migrations spawned hunger for information , and the
appearance of any person in the yurt was seen as the emergence of a messenger from the outside
world . Fourthly , the Kazakhs have cherished a special love for children (
қазақ – балажан халық): Relatively few in number, for many centuries of its uneasy historical path the Kazakhs
were to become victims to many ordeals and, thus, have come to know the value of children , to
upbring whom was considered a heavenly bliss under the severe conditions of nomadic life.
Hence the Kazakh people have a reverent attitude to posterity, the desire to have more children.
No wonder they say «
Шөп болсаң да көп бол» (even if it is grass, let there a lot of it) ,"
proclaiming the idea of multiplicity , a large number of young seedlings for the time to come.
Fifthly, the researcher noted such a trait of the Kazakh character, as susceptibility , openness to
something new (
еліктегіш, жұқтырғыш халық) , implying the ability to quickly adopt from
other peoples certain qualities and skills . This trait can be treated in two ways: both positive and
negative. Ability to learn from other peoples properties that help in everyday life produces a
positive effect on the existence of the community. But not to lose yourself, keep those traits that
define this admirable uniqueness, the specialness of the latter as a representative of the Kazakh
A renowned historian, A. Ghali Kazakh considers the idea of "re-creating the Kazakhs" a
Kazakh dream To this end , according to the scientist , you need to accelerate the process of
decolonization, undertaken in society, to effect the speedy rehabilitation of ethnic and religious
consciousness. This should help to re-create the lost quality of national character, and keep those
positive traits that modern Kazakhs now can be proud of. A.Ghali points out the following
characteristic features of the Kazakh people: 1) The Kazakhs are an ethnic group , who have
managed to preserve their state : it is a well-known fact that the entire history of the Kazakhs is a
struggle to preserve its independence, and 2) the Kazakhs have their national elite , which has
won their own place in international politics; 3) the Kazakhs are people, who are guided by
peaceful principles based on their mentality; 4) at the same time Kazakhs are warlike people
capable of defending their lands (as we have seen above, this is a character trait noted by many
researchers dealing with the national character) 5 ) Kazakhs have always been satisfied with oral
communication , because the power of speech was much stronger than any written documents ;
6) The Kazakh people considered power sacred, but it was not an absolute power; 7) Kazakh
statehood has always been democratic and open, which is the reflection or, rather, is a
consequence of the same name as the national character, as we believe 8) Self-sacrifice has its
own characteristics , " he is more free and unique; he is quite self-sufficient and even
condescending to power" [22, p.99 ] , 9) complementarity of the Kazakh nation manifests itself
in the unity and cohesion of the whole society.
The following specific features of the Kazakh national character were suggested by
Professor S. Kaskabasov: determination, hospitality , simplicity, tolerance . The Kazakhs,
according to the professor, are hardly susceptible to an emotional impact. So many processes
occurring in the life of Kazakhs are ignored by them. “To provoke the Kazakh’s belligerence,
one needs to try really hard”, says the scientist who studies the Kazakh folklore ( as is known,
the national character of the Kazakh is often embodied in a hero in folklore or mythology) . The
allegation that the Kazakh have always followed the principle of "
бас кеспек бар, тіл кеспек
Қазақ өркениеті / Казахская цивилизация. №2, 2015 ж.
жоқ " ( you can remove somebody’s head, but you have no right to deprive somebody of speech)
, is resonant with the admirable democratic and open character of the nation, which was
mentioned by Ghali. The most pleasant character trait in the Kazakh people, as S.Kaskabasov
notes is the ability to be content with what they have (
қанағатшылық). The most unbearable
one, noted by the scientist, is idleness (
жалқаулық). Thus , the notion of "national character" of the Kazakh ethnic group has its own history of
development. It is undeniable that the nature of an ethnic group is subject to change in the course
of historical development , adapting itself to existing conditions , and is transformed . The
modern idea of the Kazakh national character should conform to the principles of the
development of an independent and sovereign state. The Kazakh have a number of positive
qualities of character, and a few negative ones as a counterbalance. This phenomenon is
universal , as is common to all people of the world , and objective, as it does not depend on the
will and desires of individual personalities. The modern Kazakh, if they want to survive under
the harsh conditions of the market, should not lose their best qualities, but they have to acquire
such character traits that will contribute to its dynamic development in the modern world.
In general, the concept of "ethnos" and "national character" are correlated: the conditions
of the formation of an ethnic group as the historical community of people, a united territory,
culture in its broadest sense possible , language. The above-mentioned dictates its specific
psychological traits that show up as typical of this or that community in each and every
representative in question.