байланысты (тақырып бойынша) теориялық материалдар, зерттеу еңбектері талданады. Екінші
бөлімінде жаттығу жұмыстары орындалады. Жаттығу-іскерлік пен дағды қалыптастырудың ең тиімді
жолы болғандықтан, оның түрлері іскерліктің типі мен түріне қарай (әрбір іскерліктің «өз жаттығуы»
болуы керек) ажыратылды. Өйткені кез-келген жаттығу іскерлікті қалыптастыра бермейді, сондықтан
олардың түрлері қалыптасатын іскерліктің түріне байланысты таңдалуы тиіс. Мысалы, танып-білу
(айырып-тану деп те аталады) іскерлігін қалыптастыру үшін мәтіннен сөзжасамның элементтерін таба
алу, туынды сөзді құрамына, құрылымына, бірліктеріне, тәсілдеріне қарай ажырату мақсатындағы
жаттығулар берілуі; тілдік-жіктеу іскерлігін дамыту үшін: туынды сөздің сипатына қарай сөзжасам
жүйесін жіктеу, саралау жаттығулары берілуі, т.б. тиіс.
Қазіргі таңда қазақ тіліне мемлекеттік мәртебе беріліп, оны зерттеу мен қолданыс аясын кеңейту
бағытында зор көңіл бөлінуде. Сөздердің жасалуын тіл байлығын молайтудың басты жолы деп түсінер
болсақ, оларды оқытудың әдіс-тәсілдерін жан-жақты зерттеу басты мақсат деп есептеуге болады.
Оның үстіне қазіргі қоғам ел алдына қазақ тілінің мәртебесін көтеру мәселесін, тіліміздің байлығын
арттырып, оны жан-жақты зерттеу талаптарын қойып отыр.
1. Жиенбаев С., Бегалиев Ғ., Ұйықбаев И. Казахский язык. -Алма-Ата, Мектеп, 1988. -158-159 с.
2. Оралбаева Н., Есенов Х., Хайруллина С. Изучаем казахский язык. –Алматы: Мектеп, 1989. 83-88 с.
3. Қараев Ж. Шығармашылық пен жасампаздықтың жаңа моделі // Ақтоты, 2.02.2004. - 2 б.
4. Жақсылықова К. Қазақ тілін орыс тілді бөлімдерге модульмен оқытудың ғылыми-теориялық негіздері. –
Алматы: Білім, 2000. - 5 б.
5. Оразбаева Ф. Ускоренное обучение казахскому языку. –Алматы: Білім, 1996.
Редакцияға 10.01.2012 қабылданды.
D.J. ALIMKULOVA, A.H. HAMZINA
SUGGESTOPEDIC METHOD IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Ағылшын тілін үйретудің түрлі әдістері бар. Бастауыш кезең бүкіл тілді үйрену процесіндегі ең
маңызды кезең. Кейбір әдіскерлер шет тілін үйренудегі алғашқы адымдардың маңыздылығы жайлы
сөз еткен. Мысалы, Х.Е. Палмер бүкіл курстың сәтті немесе сәтсіз аяқталуы ол – алғашқы сабақтар
деп айтқан болатын. Алғашқы қадамдарға байланысты тиімді идеяларды іздеу барысында біз
алғаш 1970 жылы болгар дәрігері Г.Лазанов ғылымға алып келген жаңалығы «Сугестопедиялық
әдіс» атты кітапқа ден қойдық. Бұл әдістің мақсаты үйренушілердің сәтсіздікке ұшыраймын деген
ойдағы психологиялық кедергіні жою. Яғни үйренушінің тіл үйренуге деген сенімін арттыру.Түйіндей
келе барлық қолайсыздықтарға қарамастан бұл әдістің элементтерін әр оқытушы түрлі деңгейлі
What is Suggestopedia?
Suggestopedia, also named Superlearning (this is registered trade mark of Superlearning, Inc., USA) ,
is considered to be the strangest of the “humanistic approaches” and it was developed in the 1970’s by Georgi
Lozanov, a Bulgarian educator.
Georgi Lozanov introduced the contention that students naturally set up psy-
chological barriers to learning - based on fears that they will be unable to perform and are limited in terms of
their ability to learn. Lozanov believed that learners may have been using only 5 to 10 percent of their men-
tal capacity, and that the brain could process and retain much more material if given optimal conditions for
learning. Based on psychological research on extrasensory perception, Lozanov began to develop a language
learning method that focused on “desuggestion” of the limitations learners think they have, and providing the
sort of relaxed state of mind that would facilitate the retention of material to its maximum potential.
words and patterns of the language and their integration into the students’ personalities. Suggestopedia was
designed primarily to make these two processes more effective. Suggestopedia uses mostly non-verbal forms
of the Learning Hypothesis . The supporters of suggestopedia claimed that memorization in learning
through this approach would be accelerated by up to 25 times over that in conventional learning methods .
Split by PDF Splitter
should also be noted that, recall increases with time. Speaking from personal experience, Charles Adamson
says: “In the three hours we learned the Russian alphabet, the basic sentence structures, and 156 words. On
the test at the end of the class I got 98%. During the following week I did not use Russian. A week later I took
up a repeat of the same test. This time I got 99.5%. Other students from the class reported similar results” .
Lozanov says that the learners need a relaxed but focused state as the optimum state for learning . In
order to create this relaxed state (or “relaxed alertness”)as Andrea Rohmert calls it in the learner and to pro-
mote positive suggestion, suggestopedia makes use of soothing, rhythmic music, a comfortable and relaxing
environment, and a relationship between the teacher and the student similar to the parent-child relationship.
The students’ feelings have an important place. They need to feel confident and relaxed and their psychologi-
cal barriers must be „desuggested”.
Techniques used in environmental set-up
Learning is facilitated in an environment which is as comfortable as possible. Pleasing, relaxing and stim-
ulating arrangement of the classroom is deemed to be crucial to learning. To do this there is soft-cushioned
seating arranged in the form of a semicircle, dim lighting and soft music played in the classroom. Also as
stated above the learners not only learn by means of direct instruction but also indirect instruction that’s why
there are posters hung around the classroom to encourage “peripheral learning”. Also due to the belief that
arts have a soothing and facilitating effect on human psychology it is advised that the works of fine arts such
as classical paintings be hung on the walls.
Not only the classroom design but also the teacher’s authoritative role leads to effective learning by
stimulating the sub-conscious. It is maintained that information which is considered to be coming from an
authoritative source is likely to be remembered best and be the most influential of all information types. This
belief indeed highlights the teacher’s role and the learner’s role in this method.
The teacher assumes the role of complete authority and control in the classroom. S/he should have abso-
lute confidence in the method, be organized and punctual, be very careful about choosing smart clothes and
reflect her self-confidence and enthusiasm by communicating reassuringly with the learner through facial
expressions, body language, voice intonations, warmth and sensitivity. That kind of authority given to the
teacher also determines the learner’s role in the classroom. Since the teacher treats the students like a parent,
the learner assumes a child-like role. The learners engage in role-plays, songs and breathing exercises that are
believed to have the potential of making them feel self-confident, spontaneous and receptive like children.
The linguistic material presented to the students is in the forms of lengthy (but not necessarily difficult)
dialogues or stories in the target language. The reason why they are lengthy is the suggestopedic assumption
that if the students get long but relatively unchallenging dialogues they may tend to think that they are capable
of managing the subject matter, which will increase their self-confidence. In addition to being lengthy, an ef-
fective Suggestopedic text should not include logical, affective and ethical barriers.
Each linguistic material is presented on a page divided into two, including the target language text on the
right and its translation into the native language on the left. The layout is done like that because of the re-
search findings about the tendency of the readers who read from left to right to focus on the right hand-side of
the page. In the material there is also a bilingual glossary and brief grammar explanations related to the text.
When the teacher gives the text, s/he gives time to the students to have a look it and then partly in the target
language, partly in the native language and partly through body language s/he outlines the flow of the text
and gives a quick and brief explanation of the grammar point/s to be covered. Following this a presentation
session with music starts.
That the presented text of the concerning lesson is read twice by the teacher in harmony with the classical
music playing in the background is a distinguishing feature of a suggestopedic class. This part of the lesson
is called the concert session and it has two stages. In the first stage, which is called the active concert, the
teacher turns on the tape recorder to play classical music, the best of which is thought to be Baroque music
by Bach for its relieving effects. S/he allows the students to get into the mood of the music for a few minutes
and then starts reading varying his/her intonation and rhytmn in accordance with the music as if his/her voice
were one of the instruments in the orchestra. The students at the same time follow the text actively. When the
active concert finishes, it is time for the passive concert. In the passive concert another classical music work,
which is slower than the former one, plays in the background. The teacher again gives some time to students
to listen to the music and then reads the text for the second time. This time there is no attempt in matching
his/her voice with the music. S/he accords her tones with the real meanings of the phrases being read. This
Split by PDF Splitter
taught to them in the beginning of the course i.e. they breathe rhythmically and deeply for relaxation and
more effective concentration. They are also asked to close their ideas and visualize the content, which is an-
other internalization technique of Suggestopedia called “visualization”. At the passive concert the students
find themselves in a state between sleep and wakefulness. Lozanov calls this stage “pseudo-passiveness”,
which he believes optimizes learning.
Following the presentation of the text there are two-follow up stages aiming student activation. At the
primary activation stage, students are asked to reread the dialogues aloud in a dramatic way by embedding
various emotions in it as individuals and in groups. They may also be provided with costumes and wigs to
make the role play more realistic. Dramatization is done because of the significance attached to arts, that is to
say, in addition to the use of fine arts and music dramatization is also deemed to be an important artistic tech-
nique that should be used to facilitate learning. At the second activation stage, students engage in a variety
of activities such as singing songs, making conversations, playing games and creating and acting role-plays.
All the activities are grammatically and lexically relevant to the presented material but this is not brought to
student’s attention since the focus is on the communicative meaning, not on form. Also the activities are often
carried out in pairs /groups at these stages.
Techniques concerning error treatment
Errors are tolerated since the emphasis is on content not structure. They are not corrected immediately.
When errors of form occur the teacher uses the correct form in soft voice following the activities.
Another interesting technique to deal with the errors affectively is the technique of giving students new
identities in the beginning of the suggestopedic classes. The belief is that by assuming new names and roles
in the target language, the learners do not feel embarrassed as the errors they make seem to be not their own.
This technique not also masks their errors but also represents a break with the previous learning experiences
which might have been unsuccessful.
The only homework given to the students is re-reading the presented linguistic material once before they
go to sleep at night and once in the morning just after they get up as these periods are alleged to be the periods
where optimal learning takes place.
The assessment of the students’ performance is made on the basis of students’ in-class involvement. For-
mal tests are avoided for the fear that they might deteriorate the relaxing aura of the classroom atmosphere
and act as a threatening force against learner’s self-esteem.
Lozanov does not base his method on a theory of language. The linguistic elements given in the courses
do not follow a systematic order in terms of functions or structures .
In suggestopedic classes the presented text in the form of a dialogue or story is the guiding force of all
the activities carried out in the class. It is read again and again by the teacher and students in and outside the
class and communicative activities are built on it so it seems that language is seen as “the text” to be loaded
It is maintained that a great number of words can be acquired through this method  so it can be deduced
that the lexical part of the language is considered to be very important. Grammar is presented explicitly and
spontaneously with the linguistic material. Since the grammatical explanations are handled briefly and the
time devoted to grammar is minimal this method does not seem to be grammar-focused.
Another claim is that the suggestopedic courses direct the students to acts of communication . This is
true as several communicative activities rather than mechanical ones take place following the presentation of
the linguistic material.
We can also infer from the concert sessions that among the language skills listening is of great importance.
Speaking communicatively is also deemed to be significant. Reading is carried out just by voicing the text
dramatically so the strategic reading or reading techniques like finding the main idea are neglected. On the
other hand, writing has a very little place in the courses and may just take part in the follow-up stages in the
form of imaginative activities like describing one’s dream house.
An example of a classroom application
A typical suggestopedic class involves the application of the psychological and instructional techniques
mentioned above. Moreover it comprises three aforesaid stages in the following order : 1. Material presenta-
tion 2. Primary Activation 3. Secondary Activation
A sample lesson material that I have prepared involves components exemplifying the techniques of the
John, a kindergarten teacher who has applied for the position of English teacher at an English course that uses
Suggestopedia as a method and Sarah, his friend. The content of the dialogue reflects warmth and sensitivity
in the way that Sarah is in empathy with his friend by listening to him actively and giving constructive
feedback, for instance by saying “I wish the best for you.” Apart from those encoded non-conscious influences
the essence of the Suggestopedic course is described and presented by the dialogue character John with this
sentence: “The more positive you are, the better you learn.” This reflects an educational aim, which is making
the students feel the humanistic intentions lying behind the classroom techniques at the conscious level.
The format of the linguistic material is also peculiar to Suggestopedic approach. That is, the translation of
the dialogue is given at the left hand-side of the page and dialogue in the target language is presented at the
right end in bigger fonts so as to emphasize it. The vocabulary items are more highlighted (in bold characters)
in the text compared to the grammar points (just underlined) since lexis is seen more important than grammar.
This is also implied by the place of the bilingual word list related to the dialogue, given just below the
dialogue before the grammar part. This is followed by a brief explanation of the grammar point covered in the
lesson, Present Perfect Continuous Tense and the sentences made with this tense in the dialogue are presented
as examples since the main determinant is always the presented text in Suggestopedia.
In a sample lesson based on this text the teacher first hands out the copies of the presented text to the
classroom and gives the students a few minutes to scan the pages. Then s/he outlines the dialogue, quickly
reads the lexical items with their equivalences and explains the related grammar point briefly. Following
this the concert sessions, where the teacher reads the text twice in accompaniment of the classical music, are
put into practice. After the presentation there is the first activation stage. At this stage the students read the
dialogue aloud by adding “spirit” in it through emotional voicing. For example they may be asked to dramatize
it or act the text out in different emotions each time they read it; e.g. they may read it enthusiastically in the
first reading, sadly in the second reading and angrily in the third trial. The second activation stage involves
communicative and imaginative activities related to the linguistic material. For instance the students may be
divided into groups and be asked to write the script of John’s job interview and then dramatize it. In addition
songs underlining the importance of positive mood such as “I Feel Good” may be sung together. There may
also be a ball throwing game in which students throw a ball to each other and the one who receives the ball
should answer the question of the person who has thrown it. The teacher may have the students ask their
questions by using Present Perfect Continuous tense.
Suggestopedia appears to be an appealing method as it has put forward a bunch of unusual and seem-
ingly interesting techniques tied together for the first time in ELT history. It seems as if it was created by a
knowledgeable advertiser since it comprises many of the sub-conscious-oriented techniques that an effec-
tive advertisement should have: The use of music, relaxing, pleasing and stimulating environmental set-up,
motivated and powerful service people (teachers) giving positive messages with their attractive appearance
and never-ending energy so it has the potential to increase motivation, among the learners, to try and use the
“product”, which is English here.
In addition to creating motivation about starting language learning, Suggestopedia seems to have laid
sound grounds for effective learning compared to mechanical approaches due to the fact that its emphasis is
on the affective side of the human. The humanistic philosophy behind it is that “if students are relaxed and
confident, they will not need to try hard to learn the language as learning the language will just come easily
and naturally” . Thus Suggestopedia has been useful as it seems to have paved the way for the awareness
in ELT environments about the fact that language acquisition requires a state of readiness highly affected by
the existence of positive emotions. We find a theoretical reflection of such awareness in Krashen’s affective
filter hypothesis. As Krashen says if learners are bored, angry, frustrated, nervous, unmotivated or stressed
they may not be receptive to language input and so “screen” the input. This screen is referred to as the “af-
fective filter”. Thus ELT teachers should lower the learners’ affective filter so as to make them understand
the input . As seen above Suggestopedia provides teachers with several ideas and techniques to lower the
On the other hand can all Suggestopedic techniques be effective in lowering the affective filters of all
learners? There is, however, little evidence to support the extravagant claims of success. The more obvi-
ous criticisms lie in the fact that many people find classical music irritating rather than stimulating (to some
cultures Western music may sound discordant), the length of the dialogues and the lack of a coherent theory
of language may serve to confuse rather than to motivate, and, for purely logistic reasons, the provision of
establishments.In addition the idea of a teacher reading a long (and often clearly inauthentic) dialogue aloud,
with exaggerated rhythm and intonation, to the accompaniment of Beethoven or Mozart may well seem ri-
diculous to many people.
These limitations do not mean that Suggestopedia should totally be ignored in the ELT environment. For
instance when I was working as the teacher of beginner classes at IKTU, I used classical music within in-
class writing practices and most students liked the idea and gave me positive feedback about this technique.
Another technique that I find useful is peripheral learning. In the classrooms we may use bulletin boards to
hang useful linguistic materials such as irregular verb lists and/or posters focusing on the important structural
and/or lexical features of the concerning lesson. By being exposed to language at a visual level, students have
the chance of internalizing the linguistic items subconsciously.
All in all, as teachers we should not be the fanatics of just one method. Suggestopedia helps us with the
brilliant idea that there should be pleasing memories in the learning environment for effective language
acquisition. In order to create those memories the techniques that Suggestopedia has brought into the field
of ELT can be harmonized with the current ones we apply so as to create a humanistic learning environment.
1. Rohmert, A., Teaching and Learning in New Dimensions (Modern Foreign Language Conference, 1996)
2. Adamson, C., Miagy University: Suggestopedia as NLP
http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/feb/suggest.htm last modified: February 11, 1997 site maintained by
TLT Online Editor The Magazine for English Language Teachers
3. Bowen, T., What is Suggestopedia?, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 2002
4. Adamson, C., Miagy University: Suggestopedia as NLP
5. Bowen, T., What is Suggestopedia?, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 2002
6. Ridgards, J.C. & Rodgers, T.S. (1986) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching – A description and Analy-
sis. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
7. Lozanov, G. & Gateva, E. (1988) The Foreign Language Teacher’s Suggestopedic Manual. New York: Gordon
and Breach Science Publishers.
8. Lozanov, G. & Gateva, E. (1988) The Foreign Language Teacher›s Suggestopedic Manual. New York: Gordon
9. Larsen- Freeman, D. (1985) Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford.
Наш век – век полиглотов. Одним из приоритетных направлений в развитии современного
общества является изучение иностранного языка. Это означает признание того факта, что знание даже
не одного, а нескольких иностранных языков становится необходимым условием образованности,
фактором, существенно влияющим на успешное продвижение в разных сферах деятельности в
новом постиндустриальном обществе. Знание иностранных языков и компьютерных технологий-
важнейшие требования к уровню и качеству образования любого специалиста, помимо, разумеется,
профессиональной области. В последние годы всё чаще поднимается вопрос о применении новых