According to Kotter’s model Aspects Teachers Leaders
a person who pro-
somebody whom people
follow, or as somebody who guides or
Practical, thoughtful strategies that
produce tangible improvements in
schools and student learning; Directing
Creating shared culture and values;
Helping others grow
Focus on task — to teach and educate;
Based on position of power
Focus on inspiring and motivating fol-
lowers; Based on personal power
Organizational skills; Problem solving;
Strategic view; Open mind;
Good learners, good results and the
end of course
Creates change, often radical change
Efficiency of leadership…
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Comparing teachers and leaders we take following aspects as direction, alignment, relationships, per-
sonal quality and outcomes. The direction aspect’s of teacher is that they provide education for students, giv-
ing them instruction what and how learn. Leaders in that aspect are those who guide or somebody whom
people follow. Alignment aspects for teacher is practical, thoughtful strategy that produce tangible im-
provements in schools and student learning. Leaders need to be concerned with the overall alignment of vi-
sion and culture. This means that they should spend time on defining the values of organization, identifying
key skills and attributes required for the future. Directing and controlling students activities. For leaders
helping to others grow, leading others to a better place – even if you have to be last one to help your follow-
ers. Power often comes with leadership, but it’s not what drives real leaders. Relationship aspects of teach-
ers focus on task to teach and educate, leaders relationship aspect focus on inspiring and motivating to be
high performance follower. Leaders need to be highly influential. both externally and internally. In terms of
relationship within education management is that teachers spend more time influencing and persuading oth-
ers. Teachers are more concerned with supporting and training their team member on regular basis in order
to achieve day to day objectives. Personal qualities aspect for teachers are organizational skills (organization
of lesson), problem solving, telling. Leaders personal qualities are strategic view, open mind; asking; innova-
tion. Real leaders achieve their goals, they finish their work, they consistently overtake expectations. If you
don’t have any result you aren’t a leader.
In order for teacher leaders to flourish, certain characteristics and conditions must be present. Teacher
leaders must possess the knowledge and skills needed to lead. In order to be seen as a leader, they must also
have a set of positive dispositions and attitudes. Finally, there must be opportunities for leadership in the
school, district or larger context.
Teachers exercise informal leadership in their schools by sharing their expertise, by volunteering for
new projects and by bringing new ideas to the school. They also offer such leadership by helping their col-
leagues to carry out their classroom duties, and by assisting in the improvement of classroom practice
through the engagement of their colleagues in experimentation and the examination of more powerful in-
structional techniques. Teachers attribute leadership qualities, as well, to colleagues who accept responsibil-
ity for their own professional growth, promote the school’s mission and work for the improvement of the
school or the school system [6;78].
Above all attention should be paid to that European countries as UK, France, Spain and Germany and
the United States have leadership developing programs and research centers. For instance, Teacher Leader
Model Standards is made by «Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium of the USA». They explored dif-
ferent models of teacher leadership and delineated the variety of formal and informal roles exercised by
teacher leaders. They also examined the role of teaching expertise and effectiveness in regard to teacher
leadership. Teacher leadership was defined as «the process by which teachers…influence their colleagues,
principals, and other members of the school community to improve teaching and learning practices with the
aim of increased student learning and achievement».
Most of the researchers involved in exploring the concept of teachers as leaders agree that it is distinctly
different from administrative or managerial concepts of leadership. Various studies indicate that effective
teacher leadership involves a move away from top-down, hierarchical modes of functioning and a move to-
ward shared decision-making, teamwork, and community building [7; 35]. Several models have emerged for
developing teacher leaders. For example, the National Writing Project (NWP) promotes a leadership model
of teachers growing professionally by sharing their best practices with peers and with diverse audiences
at professional conferences, through journal publications, and through the design of teacher workshops and
institutes. A similar program, IMPACT II, funded by the MetLife Foundation, awards grants for exemplary
teacher projects and creates networking opportunities.
The Glossary of Education reform gives definition of teacher–leader and it says: «In schools, the
term teacher-leader is commonly applied to teachers who have taken on leadership roles and additional pro-
fessional responsibilities. The teacher-leader concept is closely related to voice and shared leadership (the
distribution of leadership roles and decision-making responsibilities beyond the administrative team in a dis-
trict or school)»
]. Teachers felt being visible in the school was an important dimension of leadership. Ex-
amples of this practice include: presenting information at staff meetings and being a leader in the school not
just in the department. Specific teaching practices (e.g., having lessons well prepared and being a good
teacher) often were mentioned. Confronting issues directly, sharing leadership with others, and personal rela-
tionships were the last three dimensions of practices mentioned by the interviewees.
Вестник Карагандинского университета
A more systematic approach to developing the requisite skills for assuming leadership roles may be
helpful. Whether or not a teacher takes on a formal leadership position, the acquisition of these skills may
serve to enhance performance in the classroom. The skills teacher leaders need to be effective in a variety of
roles can be broken into five main categories.
These set of skills sets are further defined in the article:
1. Working with adult learners;
4. Knowledge of content and pedagogy;
5. Systems thinking.
Effective teacher leaders share a set of dispositions and attitudes. They are energetic risk takers whose
integrity, high efficacy, and content knowledge give them credibility with their colleagues. Their desire to
work with adults is grounded in their belief that systems-level change will positively impact student learning,
and that their contributions to the profession are important and needed. The natural curiosity of teacher lead-
ers makes them life–long learners who are open to new experiences and challenges. Juggling many important
professional and personal roles, they effectively prioritize their work to maintain a sense of balance. Teacher
leaders often seek like-minded colleagues with similar positive intentions as allies, however they also value
different ideas and approaches that move the work forward. Difficult challenges require teacher leaders to
tap into their deep sense of courage, and their unwavering perseverance helps them to follow through. When
best-laid plans have unexpected outcomes, teacher leaders are open to constructive criticism. They reflect on
their experience, learn from it, and then with resilience move forward to the next challenge.
Teacher leaders who successfully work with adult learners build trusting relationships and facilitate pro-
fessional learning environments in order to empower their colleagues. They understand the development and
interrelationship of teacher knowledge and practice and believe that teacher learning is grounded in student
When you think about a leadership role in your work with adult learners, such as teaching colleagues,
mentoring, coaching or facilating collaborative groups, or a role that you would like assume in the future.
Effective teacher leaders understand that all decisions are made within the context of large system. Each
decision made affects the system as a whole. Accountability and credibility is shared. If you think about
goal, plan or project you have completed or want to complete. Think about how the decisions about your
project affect the systems within your classroom, team, building, district or state.
Teacher leaders use skills and strategies to work with a variety of people to achieve multiple goals.
tools such as norm setting and protocols allow leaders to facilitate groups in reaching agreement even while
working with diverse points of view. Leaders document meetings, access appropriate resources and delegate
responsibility to help the group move toward solutions. Leaders think about a collaborative leadership role
such as grade level chair, department head, building, district, state work, association work, professional or-
ganizations or role that one would like to assume in the future.
Teacher leaders use effective communication strategies to build relationships and help working groups
accomplish tasks. They are expert listeners who use their technical skills to facilitate large and small groups.
They understand the culture and contributions of group members and honor all perspectives. While thinking
about current leadership role in which communication is key to success.
Teacher leadership is built on the foundation of accomplished teaching teacher leaders initially demon-
strate excellence in instructional contexts and continue to grow as they take on leadership positions in other
context within the larger system. Content, instruction and assessment expertise is crucial to credible teacher
leaders. Knowledge of content and pedagogy is developed in formal and informal roles and settings, with the
expectation that learning in collaboration with colleagues is critical to both developing and reining teacher
Considering the five categories of knowledge, skills and dispositions that teacher leaders need to be ef-
fective in a variety of roles, we can say each category includes a vignette illustrating the dilemmas teacher
leaders face, as well as reflective questions to prompt thinking and discussion [9; 32–35].
Teacher leadership is an idea time of which has come. The unprecedented demands being placed on
schools. Today require leadership at every level. Yet many schools are still organized as though all the im-
portant decisions are made by administrators and carried out by teachers.
In the most successful schools, teachers are supported by administrators take initiative to improve
school wide policies and programs, teaching and learning, and communication. By understanding the phe-
Efficiency of leadership…
Серия «Педагогика». № 2(78)/2015
nomenon of teacher leadership and helping teachers develop the skills required to act as leaders, we will im-
prove schools and help teachers realize their full potential.
The solution to the leadership training problem is to scrap it in favor of development. We shouldn’t
train leaders, coach them, mentor them, disciple them, and develop them, but please don’t attempt to train
them. Where training attempts to standardize by blending to a norm and acclimating to the status quo, devel-
opment strives to call out the unique and differentiate by shattering the status quo. Training is something
leaders dread and will try to avoid, whereas look forward to the development. Development is nuanced, con-
textual, collaborative, fluid, and above all else, actionable.
The outcomes associated with leadership provide important clues about the basis for leader attributions
under circumstances in which leadership is experienced long enough to draw inferences from leader effects
on the organization, not simply on existing leader stereotypes. There have long been teacher leaders in
schools. They have traditionally accepted positions as department chairs, team and grade leaders, curriculum
committee chairs, and more. With the advent of school and teacher education restructuring effort, new lead-
ership roles are emerging [10; 122].Whether taking on traditional or emerging roles, a major characteristic of
teacher leaders is that they often teach full-or part-time and then assume other responsibilities [11; 28–31].
An additional characteristic is that they have generally learned the new role just by doing it.
These circumstances emphasize the urgent need for a deeper study of the problem of leadership devel-
opment in teaching. Quality of education directly affects the level of economic development of society and
quality of life. Therefore, in the present conditions requirements to the quality of education increased. In par-
ticular, more and more we are oriented to student as a self-developing competitive personality, capable of
success and leadership in their professional activities. Particular attention in this task is paid to that students
don’t only learn to make their own decisions, but to take responsibility for them. In conclusion, we can say
that efficiency of developing leadership in teaching is still relevant and can be a subject to further study. Ac-
cording to materials we can say leadership development in teaching is a new way to professional develop-
ment and we need to include it into the educational system of our country. It helps to educate and teach truly
motivated, goal–seeking high performance leaders.
1 Definition of leadership in Online Etymology Dictionary, [ER]. Access mode: Douglas Harper, Histori-
an. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/leader. 12.02.2015.
2 Definition of leadership, [ER]. Access mode: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ leadership.html
3 Rosemary K.C. Ryan. Leadership development. A guide for HR and training Professionals, Elsevier Ltd, 2008, 356 p.
4 Danielson Ch. Teachers as Leaders, 2007, 65, 1, p. 14–19.
5 Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession, Grant funding for the Teacher Leadership Skills Framework, 2009, p. 1–3.
6 Harris A., Muijs D. Improving school through teacher leadership, YHT LTD, London, 2005, 161 p.
7 Alvarado C. If leadership was everyone's domain. In taking the lead: Investing in early childhood leadership for the 21st cen-
tury, Boston, MA: Wheelock College, 1997, 158 p.
8 The Glossary of Education Reform by Great Schools Partnership, [ER]. Access mode http://edglossary.org/about/
9 Innovation Abstracts, 1984, VI, 8, p. 32–35.
10 Lieberman A., Miller L. Teachers College Record, 1990, 95, 1, p. 105–122.
11 Howey K. Journal of Teacher Education, 1988, 39, 1, p. 28–31.
Оқытудағы көшбасшылықты дамытудың тиімділігі Мақалада көшбасшылық қасиеттерін дамыту өзектілігі мен тиімділігі оқытушылардың өзін-өзі
дамуын қалыптастырады жəне студенттерді білім беру үдерісіне тарту үшін тиімді тəсілі ретінде
талқыланады. Автор оқытушылардың еуропалық жəне американдық көшбасшылық бағдарламаларын
талдай келе, оқытушы мен тəрбиелеуші болу жеткіліксіз, олар көп мақсатқа мүдделі, стратегиялық
ойлау, мотивациясы жоғары болуы тиіс. Олардың қоғам, сынып немесе жұмысқа қатысты алыс
болашаққа қарауға мүмкіндігі бар. Автор оқытушылардың ішкі жəне сыртқы өзін-өзі жетілдіру,
қоршаған орта өзгерістерін бағалау мен бəсекеге қабілетті болуы тиіс деп санайды.
Вестник Карагандинского университета
Эффективность развития лидерства в преподавании В статье рассматриваются актуальность и эффективность развития лидерских качеств как один из пу-
тей формирования у преподавателей саморазвития. Показано, что это является эффективным мето-
дом вовлечения студентов в образовательный процесс. Автор анализирует европейские и американ-
ские программы по развитию лидерских качеств у учителей и приходит к выводу, что сегодня быть
только учителем и воспитателем недостаточно. Доказывается, что учитель должен быть более целе-
устремленным, дальновидным, заинтересованным, иметь стратегическое мышление, смотреть далеко
в будущее с учетом требований общества, класса, группы или работы. Автор считает, что учителя
должны самосовершенствоваться, уметь оценивать изменения в обществе, быть конкурентоспособ-
I.Zhansugurov Zhetysu State University, Taldykorgan (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) The processes of internationalization and globalization in the modern higher education The article examines modern processes of globalization which have a significant influence on the develop-
ment of higher education around the world. Distinguished such notions as «globalization» and «international-
ization of education» as the problem of the ratio problem of economic and cultural correlation in the devel-
opment of modern higher education. Analyzed the process of internationalization which in the current socio-
cultural reality becomes more convex and intercultural interaction of education systems in controversial cir-
cumstances increasing diversity and cultural unification.
Key words: globalization of higher education; internationalization of education; intercultural education; glob-
al educational environment; international education; multiculturalism.
The historically international nature of universities is playing out in new and dynamic ways, while the
trend is extending broadly and rapidly across the higher education sector. Pushed and pulled along by the
forces of globalization, internationalization presents many exciting opportunities to higher education institu-
tions and systems. At the same time, real risks and challenges are inherent in this complex and fluid envi-
ronment. At stake are issues of competitiveness and relevance, requiring new kinds of strategic thinking and
acting with regard to the international dimension by all types of higher education actors.
Although closely related and frequently used interchangeably, the terms globalization and international-
ization in higher education refer to two distinct phenomena. Globalization typically makes reference to «the
broad economic, technological, and scientific trends that directly affect higher education and are largely in-
evitable in the contemporary world».
Internationalization, on the other hand, has more to do with the «specific policies and programs under-
taken by governments, academic systems and institutions, and even individual departments to deal with
globalization» [1; 123]. A give and take between globalization and internationalization has been evident to
many higher education observers, but one of the key distinctions between the two concepts is the notion of
control. Globalization and its effects are beyond the control of any one actor or set of actors. Internationaliza-
tion, however, can be seen as a strategy for societies and institutions to respond to the many demands placed
upon them by globalization and as a way for higher education to prepare individuals for engagement in a
globalized world. Indeed, internationalization has been conceived in many quarters as a necessary «process
of integrating an international, intercultural, or global dimension in the purpose, functions, or delivery of
The processes of internationalization and globalization…
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postsecondary education» [2; 2]. This process consists largely of two main spheres of action, commonly
characterized as «internationalization at home» and «internationalization abroad» .
Internationalization at home typically consists of strategies and approaches designed to inject an inter-
national dimension into the home campus experience-for example, by including global and comparative per-
spectives in the curriculum or recruiting international students, scholars, and faculty and leveraging their
presence on campus. Internationalization abroad, on the other hand, calls for an institution to project itself
and its stakeholders out in the world. Key examples include sending students to study abroad, setting up a
branch campus overseas, or engaging in an interinstitutional partnership. Beyond the umbrella concepts of
internationalization and globalization, a variety of other terms are used-such as, the international dimension,
international education, international programming, international and/or interinstitutional cooperation, inter-
national partnerships, cross-border education, borderless education, and regionalization. The varied termi-
nology refers to the breadth of experiences in this area and to the distinctive approaches to internationaliza-
tion taken by different higher education systems and institutions around the world.
World globalization progressively penetrates into all spheres of social life and, in particular, into the
sphere of education. Western governments, leaders of the world's leading economic organizations at interna-
tional forums recently provide a model of education emanating from the rules of free trade which is based on
the principles and strategies of transnational corporations. At the same time they claim that their analytic and
comparative conclusions insufficiently influence on the development of norms and standards in education,
and their actions are directed primarily to the full respect of democracy. As for today a lot is made in many
directions of separation tendencies that lead educational systems of many countries on the path of the global-
ized world. This equally applies to the goals, contents, methods and forms of education, different types and
kinds of educational institutions. But much of these changes is still in the research phase [4; 57].
The internationalization of education is the process of including various international aspects in the re-
search, teaching and administrative activities of educational institutions of different levels.
The internationalization process involves:
students: recruitment of foreign students, the organization of exchange programs, as well as individual
faculty: faculty exchange, joint research programs, training in foreign universities, joint training pro-
grams, the organization of intensive courses and summer schools;
certification issues, the recognition and measurement: issue of «double» diplomas, credit system, and
the international recognition of education, assessment of the quality of education;
international cooperation: exchange programs for the administration and management of human and
material resources, consulting and information services, and the evaluation procedure and infrastruc-
The successful resolution of the internationalization of the educational institution depends on the mutual
efforts and close cooperation of the participants — managers and teaching staff of educational institutions,
departments, and faculties. At the same time, the process of internationalization of each educational institu-
tion depends on its features and should be related and consistent with the educational mission of the institu-
tion, its personnel and financial resources, physical facilities, scientific potential, the number of students, and
other key components of a strategic plan for the development of the educational institution.
«Modern cross-border synergism — is a constructive action together which is aimed at improving rela-
tions between the territorial-administrative units and authorities within the jurisdiction of two or more states,
implying a resolution of agreements between them» [5; 10].
Recent changes in the cultural, social, political and economic spheres of society and information tech-
nologies pose higher education to the central stage, at once creating new problems throughout the tertiary
education sector and especially in classical universities. Adaptation of institutions of higher education to a
new cultural situation concentrates on two poles: the global and regional, which is not a feature of the devel-
opment of higher education in the global world. Mutually complementary processes of integration and disu-
nity, globalization and territorialization in the modern world are two sides of the same process: the redistri-
bution of sovereignty, authority and freedom of action on a global scale which was the catalyst for a radical
change in the development of technologies related to the velocity. Globalization is the cause of reviving the
local cultural identity in many regions of the world. Regarding higher education, polarization of global-local
is manifested in the creation of the single world educational space where there is an increase in cultural di-
versity of the offered programs.
Вестник Карагандинского университета
Changes in higher education not only provide responses to the challenges of global competition, but al-
so suggest important instruments of international cooperation. There are common strategic issues for most
countries raised up by the process of internationalization of higher education [5; 68, 69]:
Competition between the regions of the world as well as from newly emerging training providers to
attract students, researchers and professionals;
Achievement and maintainance of such level of competitiveness that would ensure the involvement of
students and researchers from other world regions to overcome the shortage of scientists in the region
or country, and to address the aging of the teaching staff of universities;
Strengthening of the process of internationalization in the preservation of cultural diversity as attrac-
tive regional characteristics;
Strengthening the overall attractiveness of a region or country to increase students’ and teachers’ mo-
tivation mobility from other parts of the world.
Chinese researcher Lee Vengan suggests that the internationalization of higher education means: firstly,
the internationalization of scientific disciplines as each of them consist of knowledge about the achievements
of world culture, and secondly, the development of new interdisciplinary courses of various levels of diffi-
culty designed to familiarize students with the basic content of the social sciences and humanities, and third-
ly, pedagogical rationale interdisciplinary approach to education and the development of technologies for its
implementation in educational practice [6; 190].
In connection with the development of world education scientists often talk about international educa-
tion, internationalization of education, transnational education, globalization of education. Any of these
terms emphasizes the different trends in the development of modern higher education, combines them striv-
ing to demonstrate the integrity of higher education on a global level, the intensification of the international
dimension in the contemporary cultural conditions.
Due to the development of world education we often speak on international education, internationaliza-
tion of education, transnational education, globalization of education. Each of these terms emphasizes the
different trends in the development of modern higher education unifying their desire to show the unity of
higher education at the global level strengthening the international dimension in contemporary cultural con-
All this variety of terms, in our view, can be divided into two large groups, one of which suggests the
existence of national frontiers in education and development of cultural interaction in multicultural-
dimensional space of modern higher education, the other, believes modern education and unified whole,
which thanks to the information and communication revolution disappear all the borders and national culture
features of higher education rises above the existing diversity of cultures and turns into a cosmopolitan phe-
nomenon. The first sub-course involves the internationalization of higher education, the second highlights to
the forefront of a global dimension.
Ratio trends of internationalization and globalization in today's higher education has been widely dis-
cussed. A large group of investigators believe that globalization in education in a certain sense is the devel-
opment of ideas of internationalization but this makes fundamental changes in the understanding of the es-
sence of modern processes. The internationalization process is an active response to a number of institutions
of higher education in the globalization trend. Internationalization involves the functioning of higher educa-
tion institutions in the framework of public education systems that seek to expand international cooperation
and overcome internal insulation.
Representatives of the opposite approach which is most often referred to the works of the Vice-
Chancellor of Kingston University Peter Scott believe that there is no continuity between internationalization
and globalization, they are two different process. The term «internationalization» reveals the growth of rela-
tions between nations and national cultures (in this sense internationalization has a long history). «Globaliza-
tion» is most often understood as the process of increasing role of global systems located outside the state
and national culture. Internationalization since the emergence of the first universities has become an integral
feature of higher education and can be seen already as tradition. Globalization is a new phenomenon, distinct
from internationalization inseparable from the new forms of social life and new paradigms knowledge pro-
At the beginning of XXI century international cooperation between universities is a higher priority for a
number of factors, which include [7; 36]:
The processes of internationalization and globalization…
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Strengthening the role of universities in building a knowledge-based economy;
Increased competition between universities because of aspiration to take a position in the education
Strengthening of international cooperation in research and development;
Benchmarking (the process of identifying, understanding and adaptation of existing examples of the
effective functioning of the organization in order to improve their own work) of universities with in-
ternational standards and rating lists;
Changes in the labor market which require employees’ greater mobility and the ability to work in a
However, today the recognition of the decisive role of the creative person by the world's scientific
community is accompanied by dissatisfaction with the modern education system, which is characterized by
gap increasing between culture and education because the mere knowledge does not substitute for spirituality
and is not able to provide a holistic process of reproduction as society so the personality.
The internationalization of higher education begins to engage in intercultural interaction long before the
global economic trends, as it is less defined historical framework than globalization. Actually the process of
globalization has been made possible, and to some extent caused by modern technological developments of
the late twentieth century. If internationalization is understood primarily as an exchange of people and ideas,
globalization refers to the structure of production and distribution services. The success of the industrialized
countries in the spheres of economy of the future knowledge-based and services, requires not just improved
higher education but higher education integrated with the international activities of governments and the pri-
vate sector. The problem is to achieve such integration while maintaining the traditional values of universal
higher education. Economic globalization and advances in technology create a global knowledge economy
which involves the internationalization of producers and products, and especially universities and other insti-
tutions of higher education and training programs that they offer [8; 41]. Thus, the globalization of higher
education is seen as development of the global education market, where education is bought and sold in a
competitive environment. Internationalization of education is a cultural aspect of interaction between differ-
ent systems of education, universities in different socio-cultural conditions. At the turn of the 20 and 21 cen-
turies internationalization takes place in the harsh conditions of globalization of world education. Therefore,
considering the globalization and internationalization of higher education variable phenomena (phenomenon
of the global economy and global cultural phenomenon), in modern conditions should be considered intercul-
tural interaction of modern systems of education, internationalization of higher education one of the manifes-
tations of globalization.
In scientific literature there is no clear definition of the changes occurring in higher education under the
influence of globalization. The authors characterize these processes as a «global education» or as «interna-
tionalization» and often these concepts are equal admitting that globalization is just a new term for the phe-
nomenon existed before.
Some researchers believe that globalization in all spheres of activity leads to internationalization in
higher education [9; 83], in other words the internationalization of higher school is a consequence of globali-
zation while university education the beginning of which was laid in 1158, the year of founding the Universi-
ty of Bologna, initially seen as an international phenomenon.
Others, on the contrary, see globalization as the higher phase of internationalization of various spheres
of activity including the economy, politics, culture, in other words, globalization is a higher phase of interna-
tionalization which moreover do not give a correct understanding of the changes occurring in the field of
higher education under the influence large-scale processes.
In modern conditions higher education has an important mission settlement of the dispute between «lo-
cal» and «global» and as a result the relationship between global and local culture factors should be found
. In a globalized economy system of higher education is able to unite the nations through intercultural
interaction as between themselves and within individual states, to resist a certain extent, centrifugal effect,
develop skills, personality, liability citizens themselves.
Modern processes of globalization have made the internationalization of education more prominent and
explicit, determined the dependence of the internationalization higher education from the global economic
processes. One of the leading trends of internationalization is to strengthen the international dimension of
higher education. American researcher R. Lambert notes that the international education is relatively inde-
pendent from each other fields of study. It includes: training abroad, profound study of foreign countries,
their social development and culture, the study of foreign languages, training in international relationships to
Вестник Карагандинского университета
fulfill international social functions, foreign students. In recent decades training programs activate compara-
tive research programs, learning a foreign language, international law, national cultures. The international
flow of students is enhanced which have become more flexible and mass recently due to the fact that they no
longer need exist physically, and acquire information and digital content. Increasing flows of foreign stu-
dents entails not only economic but cultural benefits.
Today the classic definition of internationalization of traditional and industrial civilization completes
the definition of internationalization with the development of a global culture. Kelvermark and van der
Wende consider internationalization of higher education as «any systematic supported efforts to create higher
education which is more responsive to the demands and challenges of society globalization, the economy and
the labor market» [10; 141].
Mestenheiser believes that today there is an urgent need in profound study of the internationalization of
education as an interdisciplinary, intercultural, complex, multiple, spatial phenomenon, which is controlled
global trends. Empirically confirming this definition Ellingbow understands internationalization as a process
of integration of international prospects in college or university. Internationalization is ongoing and future-
oriented process that allows higher education institution to achieve spatial and interdisciplinary leadership to
change the internal dynamics, get in touch and fully adapt to a variety of global, constantly changing external
cultural environment [11; 45].
Knight understands internationalization as «the integration of international, intercultural or global di-
mension to the objectives, functions, or post secondary education supply».
There are two components of higher education internationalization in modern literature. Most often in-
ternationalization refers to the process that requires movement of students, teachers, scientists, educational
programs and courses across national borders. But today even in highly modernized society globalization
does not affect all social layers. Bauman has called such a variety of beautiful difference «tourists and va-
grants». At the time when «tourists» romp through the world, the others watch as the world passes by. For
the cosmopolitan, extraterritorial world of global business, cultural managers, scientists national borders are
open, just as there is no border for goods, capital and finance. For the inhabitants of the second world, the
world of vagrants, private environment turns into a heavy, viscous space that connects the time and does not
allow people to control them. Despite the many existing student exchange programs the possibility of obtain-
ing higher education in a more developed system of education often depends on the social and cultural situa-
tion in society.
In recent years, there are theories in higher education that do not bind the introduction of international
and global dimension in the curriculum, the educational process and research without having to travel
abroad, that in Anglo-American literature has been called «internationalization at home». The complex term
«internationalization at home» generates a lot of discussion. The reason for its emergence in modern science
is globally-local trends in culture development. Multiculturalism of modern western societies (American,
Canadian, Western European, Australian) leads to the fact that foreign students come to the university not
only outside the borders but also from the surrounding social and cultural environment. Due to the interac-
tion in learning representatives of different cultures, both at the level of students, and at the level of teachers,
have many problems that are associated with the possible impact of modern trends of multiculturalism on the
development of intercultural learning. Can a student of a different culture living in campus make a big con-
tribution to the international development of the host university? Answering this question many scientists
believe that multiculturalism does not lead to the internationalization in the true sense of this word. By itself
internationalization does not automatically lead to a cross-cultural contacts and international experience of
learning. Thus, according to research carried out among German students more than 60% of them have never
had contact with foreign students [12; 20].
Contemporary disputes about the internationalization of higher education are related to its cultural as-
pect. Despite the fact that under the conditions of globalization national borders become less marked and cul-
tural features — more increased. So the issue of internationalization is the matter of interculturalism of high-
International educational programs should enable students without compromising their own cultural
identity acquainted with other cultures. It should not be just a cultural clash when people superficially meet
with other cultures and see it in terms of ethnocentrism. Any cultural dialogue in education must be per-
ceived on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral levels so that the social experience of another became a
personal experience (teacher or student-classmate). During interculturalism of higher education it is neces-
sary to form intercultural competence, cosmopolitan values perception of other cultures as equal to his own.
The processes of internationalization and globalization…
Серия «Педагогика». № 2(78)/2015
There must be a long process of changing the student’s knowledge, his emotional and behavioral skills that
in future he could start a positive and effective relationships with other cultures both in his home country and
Undoubtedly, globalization and internationalization are processes related in a certain way, though, most
likely, they may be considered dialectically opposed despite the fact that both of them, in fact, can be consid-
ered as a form of action which is called international integration.
Today, many scientists agree that the leading country of the XXI century will be the country that will
create the most efficient system of higher education. The economic success of states are determined by their
education systems which in turn has led to a reassessment of the role and place of higher education in socie-
ty, the mission of education. This awareness is due to the fact that the most effective factor of production in
the twenty-first century is the human factor.
Therefore, the internationalization of education in increasing number of countries becomes the object
and the subject of a deliberate policy on the part of the state focused on the specific in-country cultural, polit-
ical and social problems.
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