№1(69)/2013 Серия педагогика

Бастауыш мектеп жас шамасындағы балалардың зердесін дамыту құралы

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Бастауыш мектеп жас шамасындағы балалардың зердесін дамыту құралы 

ретіндегі қазақ ұлттық ойындары 

Мақала  көкейтестi  мəселеге — этномəдени  тəрбиеге  арналған.  Түбегейлi  ықылас  мектептегі  жас 

оқушы  балалардың  зерделi  дамуы  қазақ  ұлттық  ойындары  арқылы  жүзеге  асатынына  аударылған. 

Авторлар  қазақ  ұлттық  ойындарына  тəн  ерекшелiктерді  талқылаған.  Бастауыш  мектептiң 

педагогикалық  процесiндегi  ұлттық  ойындарды  қолданудың  қажеттiлiгi  айқындалып,  дəлелденген. 

Жұмыста айтылған қазақ ұлттық ойыны туралы ой ұлы философтар мен ойшылдардың, ұстаздардың 

көзқарасымен  толық  сəйкес.  Қазақ  ұлттық  ойыны  жəне  кiшi  мектеп  оқушысының  зерделi  дамуы 

арасындағы өзара байланыстікте жайлы қорытынды жасалды. Осы мəселе Қазақстанда аз талқыланған 

жəне ары қарай зерттеуді талап етедi. 


A.D.Amrenova, M.P.Kushnir 

Kazakh national games as means of intellectual development of children  

of younger school age 

The article is devoted to the actual to date the problem of ethno-cultural education. Considerable attention is 

given to the Kazakh national games, as a means of mental development of children of primary school age. 

Authors are analyzed the characteristics of the Kazakh national games. Identified and the necessity for the use 

of national games in the pedagogical process of the primary school. The authors of the article are given the 

generalized thoughts of the Kazakh national game, great philosophers, thinkers and teachers. In conclusion 

reveals a close relationship between the Kazakh national game and mental development of young students. In 

Kazakhstan the problem is a little stadied and requires further research. 






Серия «Педагогика». № 1(69)/2013 



УДК 37 + 396.11 (574) 

M.P.Kushnir, L.Kiling-Schneider 

Gender education in Kazakhstan 

In the social sciences and humanities gender equality is associated with the organization of gender education 

and gender studies. In this connection there is a need for detection of features of the organization of gender 

education. The article highlights the trend of gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan. For their study, 

the author analyzes the concept of «gender education», analyzes a number of factors that influence the effec-

tiveness of gender education and experience in the development of gender education in the Republic of Ka-

zakhstan: the functioning of non-governmental organizations, the creation of Internet-resources, availability 

of scientific research in the field of gender studies, activity programs gender international and national levels, 

publication of literature on gender education. 

Key words: gender, gender education, trends in gender education, Strategy for Gender Equality in the Repub-

lic of Kazakhstan. 


The modern world dictates the requirement to factor in gender in all spheres of human life. In 

accordance with this as an important part of responsible domestic policy is gender policy, suggesting the 

absence of sex discrimination and maintaining gender balance in society. 

The features of a harmonious state gender policy are guided by national and international experience in 

the field of gender equality, civilization, religious and cultural features of the world community, continuity, 

pragmatism and balance [1]. 

The present situation and status of the sexes and their interactions have changed in a democratic society 

in the Republic of Kazakhstan under the influence of world culture and the real processes occurring in it. 

Among these processes, you can specify: 

1) ratification of international orientation and gender to create its own legal framework governing 

relations between the sexes in the social, political, economic and other spheres of life; 

2) the introduction of a mechanism policy of gender balance; 

3) the activities of women's organizations; 

4) development of gender issues by scientists; 

5) organization of gender education. 

If we turn to the consideration of the latter phenomenon, we can detect the absence of a clear definition 

of the concept of «gender education» that in modern research is treated uniquely. But the unique and 

accurate interpretation is necessary for the competent organization and effective operation of the system of 

gender education. 

In disclosing the content of the definition of «gender education» L.V.Shtileva [2] connects it with the 

concepts of «gender education» and «gender mainstreaming». According to the researcher, the result of 

gender education is cultural tolerance and outlook. Gender education is given to the role of promoter of 

gender studies and conductor of ideas of gender equality and gender knowledge. 

I.Kostikova and her co-authors [3] consider gender education in terms of age profile of students. 

Therefore they produce gender education pupils, students and adults with the purpose and content. If gender 

education of students will help them to cope with the problems of socialization and adopt a social role, 

gender education students is aimed at clarifying the gender stereotypes and seeking means to overcome 

them. Gender education is primarily adaptive character. 

The above interpretation of gender studies give a broad and on the purpose and content of the same 

gender education. The article of B.Imanserikova [4] provides a definition of gender-based education —        a 

M.P.Kushnir, L.Kiling-Schneider 


Вестник Карагандинского университета 

system of educational activities aimed at socializing, a culture, and social activism in the interest of both the 

individual and its self-realization, and the formation and development of gender society and state. This 

definition clearly delineates the area in which it operates gender education, but requires specifying its 


O.A.Khasbulatova [5] considers gender education as a systematic process of obtaining knowledge of 

the gender equality strategy and skills of their application in practice. 

In our view, this interpretation reduces gender education for education. 

A.Chesnokova shares three levels of consideration of gender education: 

 the level of production and the increment of information about issues of sex / gender; 

 the level of formation of the valuable relation to themselves and others and tolerance; 

 the level of practical teaching skills of sexuality. 

The goal of gender education is to implement a gender revolution in education was held in criticizing 

the dominant gender stereotypes, gender roles and the distribution of the whole system of sex education and 

education and fundamental change in the methods of education [6]. 

This approach to the definition of gender education can submit it as a system and to show the 

relationship of gender education (level 1), gender, education (level 2), gender, education (level 3). But the 

objectives, in our view, more than a global and can be assigned to the field of implementation science. The 

task of developing a theory of gender education and training, according to L.V.Shtyleva, is to: 

1) identify and show the public pedagogical aspects of gender socialization of boys and girls as agents 

of school education, the influence of the complex and multidirectional interactions with parents, peers, 

teachers, textbooks and materials course on developing gender identity of individuals of both sexes; 

2) to analyze the role of the school as a social institution in the gender socialization of boys and girls 

contribute to the elimination of discrimination based on sex, overcome the most rigid gender stereotypes in 

educational school practice; 

3) identify patterns and methods of pedagogical influence teachers on gender identity of students to 

teachers in the process of interaction, adjusting the effect of the environment, to expand individual 

opportunities for self-realization of students [7]. 

In connection with the task researcher outlines the issues that require their development within gender 


1. The first group, conventionally called the «Society, gender, gender» includes relationship problems 

in the natural and social gender socialization, and analysis of the impact of gender asymmetry to develop the 

child's personality, design technologies impact society on the individual in order to create a specific model of 

gender identity. 

2. The second group of problems with the code name «Gender studies»: a historical retrospective of the 

relationship of pedagogy as a science and practice of sex-role socialization of children's issues, analysis of 60 

— 80 years of sex education, the study of differences in gender socialization of boys and girls, the role of 

school objects interact with teachers of both sexes in achieving gender equality. 

3. The third group of «Problems of gender mainstreaming in the work of the school and the training of 

teaching staff» brings together the issues of methodology and techniques, strategies and tactics to promote 

gender studies in the training of teachers of different ages, gender methodological aspects of the 

implementation of innovation in the educational process of educational institutions [7]. 

Thus, gender education provides a deconstruction of traditional cultural restrictions of individual 

potential as a function of gender, understanding and creation of conditions for maximum fulfillment and 

disclosure of girls and boys in the pedagogical interaction. 

Gender education we define as the process of learning the system of gender knowledge and skills 

development performance of social roles and gender relations on the principles of equality and tolerance in 

all spheres of public life by taking into account the full range of individual and gender differences [8]. 

Kazakhstan has made significant progress in the academic field for the study of gender issues in 


Since 2002, the country has implemented a number of research projects, such as the «Program of 

Gender Education in Kazakhstan», «Gender Politics of the Republic of Kazakhstan», «Gender Education», 

«Feminization of education of the Republic of Kazakhstan: response» and others, the purpose of which — 

development of a conceptual framework of continuing education and gender detection mechanisms and 

effective implementation of the gender policy. For example, under the «Program of Gender Education in 

Gender education in Kazakhstan 

Серия «Педагогика». № 1(69)/2013 


Kazakhstan» developed training programs for pre-school, middle school and high school in gender 


In 2003, with support of the Ministry of Education and Science, a project «Gender education» came 

into being. Its follow-up have been developed educational-methodical complexes for pre-school and primary 

school, a guide for gender analysis of textbooks and textbook «Principles of Gender Education», the result of 

Kazakhstan's research, traditional Kazakh culture, especially gender identity. 

The project also conducted a gender analysis of textbooks and teaching materials, and a gender analysis 

of the learning environment in the pilot schools and universities. The project will then provide the 

perspectives and mechanisms for implementation of the program of gender education in Kazakhstan, to 

develop a system of gender indicators in education as a tool for promotion of gender equality in education [9]. 

Have an impact on the effectiveness of gender education possible by several factors: 

 social and political — the ideology of gender equality, with creating in the state according to national 

circumstances and interests; 

 institutional — the level of gender community in general and the general state of the education system 

in the country, including and achieving gender equality in education; 

 economic — financing gender studies; 

 the «human» — the work of nongovernmental organizations, researchers, developers, gender, 

international organizations, supporting them; 

 information — availability of textbooks, teaching materials and electronic information resources [10]. 

The above factors and analysis of experience in the development of gender education in Kazakhstan 

allows us as the major trends of gender education are the following provisions. In our opinion, the first trend 

of gender education is the ratification of international instruments and the establishment of gender-sensitive 

government's own legislation governing the activities in this area. Thus, Kazakhstan has ratified the UN 

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, «On the Political Rights of 

Women» and «On the Nationality of Married Women» and other more than 60 international human rights 


To assess the extent reflected in the legislation of Kazakhstan, gender equality consider the Constitution 

as the fundamental law of the state and a number of other acts: The concept of moral and sexual education in 

the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Strategy for Gender Equality in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2006–2016, 

the concept of gender policy in Kazakhstan Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On state guarantees of 

equal rights and equal opportunities for men and women». In the Constitution states that citizens of 

Kazakhstan guarantees that the equality of all before the law, human rights and freedoms, regardless of 

gender, ethnicity, and other characteristics. 

The law «On Education» stipulates the equal rights of all citizens to education and access to education 

at all levels in accordance with their, including psycho-physiological characteristics. 

The purpose of the concept of moral and sexual education in the Republic of Kazakhstan — to improve 

the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors on health, sexual health of adolescents and young people [11]. 

The concept of gender policy in Kazakhstan has identified the main areas of gender policy in the 

country — the achievement of a balanced participation of men and women in positions of power, equal 

opportunities for women's economic independence, their business development and promotion, creation of 

conditions for the equal enjoyment of rights and responsibilities in the family, freedom from gender-based 

violence [12]. 

Strategy for Gender Equality in the Republic of Kazakhstan is the basic document, aimed at 

implementation of the gender policy, tool implementation and monitoring of the state and civil society. It 

includes actions to achieve gender equality in laws, social policy, social and political life, the economy, 

health, violence against women and children, traffic, information policy, culture, science and education [12]. 

Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for 

Men and Women» regulates social relations in the area of state guarantees of equal rights and equal opportu-

nities for men and women, and sets out the basic principles and rules relating to the creation of conditions for 

gender equality in all spheres of public and public life [13]. 

These documents provide the legal basis for equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender, and pro-

mote gender education. There is a direct dependence of the goals of gender equality, the creation of effective 

system of gender education, since the latter is defined as a strategy of promoting «a policy of gender equality 

at all levels and in all spheres of society» [12]. 

M.P.Kushnir, L.Kiling-Schneider 


Вестник Карагандинского университета 

The second trend is the functioning of non-governmental organizations on gender and family-

demographic policy and implementation of social projects, in particular, on gender education. Nongovern-

mental organizations (NGOs) are non-profit and are defined by law as a legal entity that does not have as a 

primary purpose of profit and does not distribute any net income between the parties [14]. 

The purpose of their activities are diverse: the implementation of state policy in the field of culture, in-

ternational relations, language and information policy, anti-corruption, gender promotion, promotion of state 

symbols, forming anti-terrorism awareness in society and the prevention of drug addiction. And it should be 

noted that the number of women working in NGOs, 3 times higher than that of men. 

Often focused on gender issues, women's NGOs, which in Kazakhstan is up to 13 % of the total number 

of non-governmental organizations. Thanks to them, developing new bills, conducted a gender analysis of 

laws, abolished the discriminatory legal provisions, is wide promotion of gender equality and gender training 

for civil servants, police, youth, rural poor women, and other groups. Thus, the aim of the National 

Commission for Women, Family and Demographic Policy under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan 

is the introduction of gender knowledge in education, to educate the public awareness of the need for legal 

and gender equality, equitable social relations between men and women [15]. 

Research on gender education and gender studies actually conducted the Association of Business 

Women of Kazakhstan, Almaty Women's Information Center, the Women's Union of intellectual work, 

«Women of Kazakhstan», The gender information-analytical center of Karaganda, etc. 

The third trend — centralization of gender studies and supervision of the organization of gender 

education in practice. 

Among the organizations as a research center in the field of gender studies are: 

 Center for Gender Studies; 

 Scientific Research Institute for Social and Gender Research at the Women's Institute of Education, 

 Center for Gender Education at the Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi, 

 Feminist League. 

For example, the Center for Gender Education created the Kazakh National University named after Al-

Farabi Kazakh National University, Research Institute for Social and Gender Studies — at the Kazakh State 

Women's Pedagogical Institute. 

The main mission of the Gender Education Center is to promote gender studies and gender studies in 

the universities of Kazakhstan. The center was created to integrate gender in the content of higher education, 

which broadens and deepens students' knowledge in this area, to improve the educational activities on gender 

issues and the implementation of the gender policy in education [16]. 

In secondary education, gender RK limited items «Valeology», «Ethics and Psychology of Family 

Life», «Self-knowledge». Gender approach implemented in physical education classes in the 5–11 grades, 

where the segregation of boys and girls. In the system of secondary education gender issue is presented in the 

academic disciplines of social and human sciences. 

In higher education courses on gender issues, teach a «Gender», introduced a training course for the 

«Introduction to the theory of gender». Developed training programs on gender education, is working to 

create a gender-sensitive teaching materials for teachers and students. Gender perspective is included in the 

state compulsory standards mean 12 years of education [17]. 

The inclusion of new issues in the content of school education is associated with a number of 

difficulties, the main one of which is overloaded curriculum. Solutions to this problem: 

 inclusion of specific topics of gender in general courses in social science and history

 the inclusion of gender in the context of the above subjects, in explaining the individual topics of 

general courses; 

 integrated courses with the inclusion of gender issues in the core courses; 

 electives, independent courses; 

 the introduction of gender themes in scientific work of students, or the introduction of a gender 

perspective in school activities [18]. 

Exchange of scientific and methodological experience organizing gender education and its distribution 

is determined by us as a fourth trend. 

Kazakhstan was held on various aspects of gender conferences at various levels. For example, I 

Congress of women and gender NGOs of Kazakhstan (7–8 November 2008), «Equal rights and opportunities 

for men and women» (2003), «Gender education: context, technology and policy» (2006). As the fifth trend 

Gender education in Kazakhstan 

Серия «Педагогика». № 1(69)/2013 


of gender education in Kazakhstan, we define the creation of Internet resources [19, 20], for example, gender 

studies: Central Asian Network (www.genderstudies.info), Women Silk Way (www.women.kz), the 

«Vestnik of Eurasia» (www.eavest.ru) etc. 

Website «Gender Studies. Central Asian Network» was opened in December 2004, the Center for 

Gender Studies, Almaty in order to compensate for a deficiency of educational materials in gender studies.  

Russian-language resource for gender in teaching and research in the CIS is the most widely available. There 

are a large number of scientific texts, full-text versions of collections, theses, abstracts, reviews, and 

educational programs, resources on gender studies, etc. 

Website «Women Silk Way» was opened in 1999, and renewed in 2004 contains texts of conventions, 

laws, legislation, national programs, analyzes, statistics, media publications, bibliographies, curricula, 

research papers, research reports and other features of the site is a function of the consolidation of the 

women's movement in Central Asia, provides information on all the five countries of the region. Not a 

specialized resource for gender education, but can be successfully used by teachers and students [21]. 

The presence of scientific research in the field of gender studies, we believe it is important to highlight 

both the sixth trend. First identification of scientists in the field of gender relations was held in 1997, in 

connection with the start of two projects initiated by the Bureau of the «Gender and Development», UNDP, 

«Report on the Status of Women in the Republic of Kazakhstan» (Feminist League implemented in 1997) 

and «Implementation gender subjects in high schools of Kazakhstan» (1998–99). 

From 1995 to 2010, two PhD dissertations 30 master's theses on gender were defended. The most 

susceptible to gender are sociology and political science. The purpose of the study of gender studies is in-

depth understanding of the social role of women in history and the modern world, the assessment of their 

contribution to humanity. In order to have, gender studies, it is necessary to develop the concept of gender 

education, which will determine the exact location of gender studies in the knowledge system [22]. 

Subject Gender Studies includes a certain common set of priority issues that attract the attention of 

researchers: «The new economic strategies of men and women», «Different directions of transformation of 

family relationships», «Violence against women», «Gender Stereotypes and the effects of various 

ideologies», «Gender equality in education», «Women's political participation and political leadership» [10]. 

The seventh trend we define gender mainstreaming activities and programs of international and national 

levels. For example, the international program «Development of gender education in CIS countries», which 

was a national partner of the Feminist League of Kazakhstan. The main goal of the program is the 

development of regional cooperation, a professional approach to research and teaching in the field of gender 

studies, the establishment and expansion of sub-regional network of gender studies to support research, 

information sharing and exchange of academic publications. 

The ultimate goal of the program — help to change the system and standards of education in the post-

Soviet sub by introducing gender studies in higher education [23]. 

International organizations that promote progress in gender policy in Kazakhstan include the OSCE, 

UNIFEM, UNDP and others. Since 2001, the OSCE and UNIFEM conducted gender activities in 

Kazakhstan. Among these educational programs for women, children and parents to prevent traffic from 

Kazakhstan and Central Asia Regional campaign for women's rights to a life free of violence, etc. One of the 

most successful projects of the international organization, UNDP was the introduction of gender education in 

schools and publication of the first textbook in conjunction with the Institute of Philosophy and Political 

Science MES «Introduction to the theory of gender» in 1999 [24]. 

The eighth trend is the publication of literature on gender education. The works have been already 

published such as «Introduction to the theory of gender» (Almaty: Institute of Philosophy and Political 

Science, 1999), «Glossary of terms of gender» (Almaty: UNIFEM, 2001), S.Shakirov, A.Khamatdinova, 

K.Yakhyaev «Popular gender education «(manual on training. — Almaty, 2002)», Principles of Gender 

Education «(manual ed. G.T.Tanirbergenova. — Almaty: MES RK Institute for GIS KazSZhP, 2003), etc. 

Academic literature on gender issues in the Kazakh language is very small. This is due to the lack of 

social services for the publication of such literature and the lack of translation capacity of women's NGOs 

and teachers are used to working in Russian. Thus, we can draw some conclusions: 

1. Gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan is a significant problem for the state and develops a 

rather favorable cultural and ideological background. 

2. The current legislative framework, the impact of institutional, political, organizational, and financial 

factors, the activities of research institutes and centers on gender create the conditions for the organization of 

gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 

M.P.Kushnir, L.Kiling-Schneider 


Вестник Карагандинского университета 

3. Trends in gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan are: 

 the ratification of international instruments and creating gender-sensitive government own legislative 

framework governing the activities in this field; 

 the functioning of non-governmental organizations on gender and family-demographic policy and 

implementation of social projects, in particular gender-based education; 

 centralization of gender studies and supervision of the organization of gender education in practice; 

 the exchange of scientific and methodological experience of the organization of gender education and 

its distribution; 

 the creation of Internet-resources; 

 availability of scientific research in the field of gender studies; 

 activity programs gender international and national levels; 

 publication of literature on gender education. 




1  Abdykalikova G.N. Presidency of Kazakhstan in OSCE: gender aspect // http://www.nomad.su/? a=3–201002010032 

2  Shtileva L.V. A gender approach in education // World of Education — Education worldwide. — 2005. — № 1. — Р. 89–100. 

3  Kostikovа I., Mitrofanova A., Pulina N., Gradskova Yu. Prospects of gender education in Russia: look of the teacher // Higher 

Education in Russia. — 2001. — № 2. — Р. 68–76. 

4  Imanserikova B. Gender education at elementary school in a course «Self-knowledge» context // Self-knowledge. — 2008. — 

№ 2. — Р. 9–13. 

5  Khasbulatovа O.A. Gender researches in modern Russia // Personality. Culture. Society. — 2003. — № 5 (1–2). — Р. 84–99. 

6  Chesnokova O.A. Place and a role of gender education in spiritual culture of modern Belarus // 


7   Shtyleva L.V. Pedagogics and gender: development of gender approaches in education // 


8  Kushnir M.P. About concept definition «gender education» // Reports of the Kazakh Academy of Education. — 2011. — № 1. —         

Р. 26–32. 

9  Regional report of the Working group of girls by training // http://www.carkforum.tj/russian/thematic_presentations/ the-

matic_group (word)/ru/reionalni%20otchet%20ru.doc 

10  Gender education. The regional review in eight camps of the CIS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, 

Moldova, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. — Moscow: Variant, 2006. 

11  About the concept of moral and sexual education in the Republic of Kazakhstan // Collection of acts of the President and the 

Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. — Astana, 2001. — Р. 95–106. 

12  Strategy for Gender Equality in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2006–2016 // http://www.kazembassy.by/econom/equality.html 

13  The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Men and Women» 

// http://www.pavlodar.com/zakon/ 

14  The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About non-profit organizations» // http://www.pavlodar.com/zakon/ 

15  The national commission on affairs of women and family and demographic policy at the President of the Republic of Ka-

zakhstan. — http://www.ncgp.kz/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=113&Itemid=93 &lang=ru 

16  Center of gender education // http://www.kaznu.kz/ru/1504/ 

17  Aliakbarova G.K. About introduction of gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan // http://www.cis.minsk.by/ 

main.aspx? uid=7428 

18  Prokhorovа O.A. Gender education at high school // http://www.eduhmao.ru/info/1/3760/23580/ 

19  Public organization «Center of gender education» // http://www.genderedu.freenet.tj/resurs.htm 

20  Shakirovа S. The Unbearable Lightness of Being // http://giacgender.narod.ru/n1m2.htm 

21  Shakirova S. The national report on a condition of reforms in system of the higher education and about a condition of gender 

education in the country // http://www.genderstudies.info/educat/educat4.htm 

22  Zhalimbetova R.B. Gender researches: history and present // http://giacgender.narod.ru/n4i1.htm 

23  Institute of Social and Gender Policy // http://www.genderpolicy.ru/295 

24  Kodar Z.M. Gender policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan // http://www.astanaforum.kz/index.php?option= 

com_content&view=article&id=203: kodarzamza&catid=89: social-and-moral-responsibility-of-power&Itemid=151 



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