Мақала көкейтестi мəселеге — этномəдени тəрбиеге арналған. Түбегейлi ықылас мектептегі жас
оқушы балалардың зерделi дамуы қазақ ұлттық ойындары арқылы жүзеге асатынына аударылған.
Авторлар қазақ ұлттық ойындарына тəн ерекшелiктерді талқылаған. Бастауыш мектептiң
педагогикалық процесiндегi ұлттық ойындарды қолданудың қажеттiлiгi айқындалып, дəлелденген.
Жұмыста айтылған қазақ ұлттық ойыны туралы ой ұлы философтар мен ойшылдардың, ұстаздардың
көзқарасымен толық сəйкес. Қазақ ұлттық ойыны жəне кiшi мектеп оқушысының зерделi дамуы
арасындағы өзара байланыстікте жайлы қорытынды жасалды. Осы мəселе Қазақстанда аз талқыланған
жəне ары қарай зерттеуді талап етедi.
The article is devoted to the actual to date the problem of ethno-cultural education. Considerable attention is
given to the Kazakh national games, as a means of mental development of children of primary school age.
Authors are analyzed the characteristics of the Kazakh national games. Identified and the necessity for the use
of national games in the pedagogical process of the primary school. The authors of the article are given the
generalized thoughts of the Kazakh national game, great philosophers, thinkers and teachers. In conclusion
reveals a close relationship between the Kazakh national game and mental development of young students. In
Kazakhstan the problem is a little stadied and requires further research.
УДК 37 + 396.11 (574)
Gender education in Kazakhstan
In the social sciences and humanities gender equality is associated with the organization of gender education
and gender studies. In this connection there is a need for detection of features of the organization of gender
education. The article highlights the trend of gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan. For their study,
the author analyzes the concept of «gender education», analyzes a number of factors that influence the effec-
tiveness of gender education and experience in the development of gender education in the Republic of Ka-
zakhstan: the functioning of non-governmental organizations, the creation of Internet-resources, availability
of scientific research in the field of gender studies, activity programs gender international and national levels,
publication of literature on gender education.
Key words: gender, gender education, trends in gender education, Strategy for Gender Equality in the Repub-
lic of Kazakhstan.
The modern world dictates the requirement to factor in gender in all spheres of human life. In
absence of sex discrimination and maintaining gender balance in society.
The features of a harmonious state gender policy are guided by national and international experience in
the field of gender equality, civilization, religious and cultural features of the world community, continuity,
pragmatism and balance .
The present situation and status of the sexes and their interactions have changed in a democratic society
in the Republic of Kazakhstan under the influence of world culture and the real processes occurring in it.
Among these processes, you can specify:
1) ratification of international orientation and gender to create its own legal framework governing
relations between the sexes in the social, political, economic and other spheres of life;
2) the introduction of a mechanism policy of gender balance;
3) the activities of women's organizations;
4) development of gender issues by scientists;
5) organization of gender education.
If we turn to the consideration of the latter phenomenon, we can detect the absence of a clear definition
of the concept of «gender education» that in modern research is treated uniquely. But the unique and
accurate interpretation is necessary for the competent organization and effective operation of the system of
In disclosing the content of the definition of «gender education» L.V.Shtileva  connects it with the
concepts of «gender education» and «gender mainstreaming». According to the researcher, the result of
gender education is cultural tolerance and outlook. Gender education is given to the role of promoter of
gender studies and conductor of ideas of gender equality and gender knowledge.
I.Kostikova and her co-authors  consider gender education in terms of age profile of students.
Therefore they produce gender education pupils, students and adults with the purpose and content. If gender
education of students will help them to cope with the problems of socialization and adopt a social role,
gender education students is aimed at clarifying the gender stereotypes and seeking means to overcome
them. Gender education is primarily adaptive character.
The above interpretation of gender studies give a broad and on the purpose and content of the same
gender education. The article of B.Imanserikova  provides a definition of gender-based education — a
system of educational activities aimed at socializing, a culture, and social activism in the interest of both the
individual and its self-realization, and the formation and development of gender society and state. This
definition clearly delineates the area in which it operates gender education, but requires specifying its
O.A.Khasbulatova  considers gender education as a systematic process of obtaining knowledge of
the gender equality strategy and skills of their application in practice.
In our view, this interpretation reduces gender education for education.
A.Chesnokova shares three levels of consideration of gender education:
the level of production and the increment of information about issues of sex / gender;
the level of formation of the valuable relation to themselves and others and tolerance;
the level of practical teaching skills of sexuality.
The goal of gender education is to implement a gender revolution in education was held in criticizing
the dominant gender stereotypes, gender roles and the distribution of the whole system of sex education and
education and fundamental change in the methods of education .
This approach to the definition of gender education can submit it as a system and to show the
relationship of gender education (level 1), gender, education (level 2), gender, education (level 3). But the
objectives, in our view, more than a global and can be assigned to the field of implementation science. The
task of developing a theory of gender education and training, according to L.V.Shtyleva, is to:
1) identify and show the public pedagogical aspects of gender socialization of boys and girls as agents
of school education, the influence of the complex and multidirectional interactions with parents, peers,
teachers, textbooks and materials course on developing gender identity of individuals of both sexes;
2) to analyze the role of the school as a social institution in the gender socialization of boys and girls
contribute to the elimination of discrimination based on sex, overcome the most rigid gender stereotypes in
educational school practice;
3) identify patterns and methods of pedagogical influence teachers on gender identity of students to
teachers in the process of interaction, adjusting the effect of the environment, to expand individual
opportunities for self-realization of students .
In connection with the task researcher outlines the issues that require their development within gender
1. The first group, conventionally called the «Society, gender, gender» includes relationship problems
in the natural and social gender socialization, and analysis of the impact of gender asymmetry to develop the
child's personality, design technologies impact society on the individual in order to create a specific model of
2. The second group of problems with the code name «Gender studies»: a historical retrospective of the
relationship of pedagogy as a science and practice of sex-role socialization of children's issues, analysis of 60
— 80 years of sex education, the study of differences in gender socialization of boys and girls, the role of
school objects interact with teachers of both sexes in achieving gender equality.
3. The third group of «Problems of gender mainstreaming in the work of the school and the training of
teaching staff» brings together the issues of methodology and techniques, strategies and tactics to promote
gender studies in the training of teachers of different ages, gender methodological aspects of the
implementation of innovation in the educational process of educational institutions .
Thus, gender education provides a deconstruction of traditional cultural restrictions of individual
potential as a function of gender, understanding and creation of conditions for maximum fulfillment and
disclosure of girls and boys in the pedagogical interaction.
Gender education we define as the process of learning the system of gender knowledge and skills
development performance of social roles and gender relations on the principles of equality and tolerance in
all spheres of public life by taking into account the full range of individual and gender differences .
Kazakhstan has made significant progress in the academic field for the study of gender issues in
Since 2002, the country has implemented a number of research projects, such as the «Program of
Gender Education in Kazakhstan», «Gender Politics of the Republic of Kazakhstan», «Gender Education»,
«Feminization of education of the Republic of Kazakhstan: response» and others, the purpose of which —
development of a conceptual framework of continuing education and gender detection mechanisms and
effective implementation of the gender policy. For example, under the «Program of Gender Education in
Серия «Педагогика». № 1(69)/2013
Kazakhstan» developed training programs for pre-school, middle school and high school in gender
In 2003, with support of the Ministry of Education and Science, a project «Gender education» came
into being. Its follow-up have been developed educational-methodical complexes for pre-school and primary
school, a guide for gender analysis of textbooks and textbook «Principles of Gender Education», the result of
Kazakhstan's research, traditional Kazakh culture, especially gender identity.
The project also conducted a gender analysis of textbooks and teaching materials, and a gender analysis
of the learning environment in the pilot schools and universities. The project will then provide the
perspectives and mechanisms for implementation of the program of gender education in Kazakhstan, to
develop a system of gender indicators in education as a tool for promotion of gender equality in education .
Have an impact on the effectiveness of gender education possible by several factors:
social and political — the ideology of gender equality, with creating in the state according to national
circumstances and interests;
institutional — the level of gender community in general and the general state of the education system
in the country, including and achieving gender equality in education;
economic — financing gender studies;
the «human» — the work of nongovernmental organizations, researchers, developers, gender,
international organizations, supporting them;
information — availability of textbooks, teaching materials and electronic information resources .
The above factors and analysis of experience in the development of gender education in Kazakhstan
allows us as the major trends of gender education are the following provisions. In our opinion, the first trend
of gender education is the ratification of international instruments and the establishment of gender-sensitive
government's own legislation governing the activities in this area. Thus, Kazakhstan has ratified the UN
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, «On the Political Rights of
Women» and «On the Nationality of Married Women» and other more than 60 international human rights
To assess the extent reflected in the legislation of Kazakhstan, gender equality consider the Constitution
as the fundamental law of the state and a number of other acts: The concept of moral and sexual education in
the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Strategy for Gender Equality in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2006–2016,
the concept of gender policy in Kazakhstan Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On state guarantees of
equal rights and equal opportunities for men and women». In the Constitution states that citizens of
Kazakhstan guarantees that the equality of all before the law, human rights and freedoms, regardless of
gender, ethnicity, and other characteristics.
The law «On Education» stipulates the equal rights of all citizens to education and access to education
at all levels in accordance with their, including psycho-physiological characteristics.
The purpose of the concept of moral and sexual education in the Republic of Kazakhstan — to improve
the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors on health, sexual health of adolescents and young people .
The concept of gender policy in Kazakhstan has identified the main areas of gender policy in the
country — the achievement of a balanced participation of men and women in positions of power, equal
opportunities for women's economic independence, their business development and promotion, creation of
conditions for the equal enjoyment of rights and responsibilities in the family, freedom from gender-based
Strategy for Gender Equality in the Republic of Kazakhstan is the basic document, aimed at
implementation of the gender policy, tool implementation and monitoring of the state and civil society. It
includes actions to achieve gender equality in laws, social policy, social and political life, the economy,
health, violence against women and children, traffic, information policy, culture, science and education .
Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «On State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for
Men and Women» regulates social relations in the area of state guarantees of equal rights and equal opportu-
nities for men and women, and sets out the basic principles and rules relating to the creation of conditions for
gender equality in all spheres of public and public life .
These documents provide the legal basis for equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender, and pro-
mote gender education. There is a direct dependence of the goals of gender equality, the creation of effective
system of gender education, since the latter is defined as a strategy of promoting «a policy of gender equality
at all levels and in all spheres of society» .
The second trend is the functioning of non-governmental organizations on gender and family-
demographic policy and implementation of social projects, in particular, on gender education. Nongovern-
mental organizations (NGOs) are non-profit and are defined by law as a legal entity that does not have as a
primary purpose of profit and does not distribute any net income between the parties .
The purpose of their activities are diverse: the implementation of state policy in the field of culture, in-
ternational relations, language and information policy, anti-corruption, gender promotion, promotion of state
symbols, forming anti-terrorism awareness in society and the prevention of drug addiction. And it should be
noted that the number of women working in NGOs, 3 times higher than that of men.
Often focused on gender issues, women's NGOs, which in Kazakhstan is up to 13 % of the total number
of non-governmental organizations. Thanks to them, developing new bills, conducted a gender analysis of
laws, abolished the discriminatory legal provisions, is wide promotion of gender equality and gender training
for civil servants, police, youth, rural poor women, and other groups. Thus, the aim of the National
Commission for Women, Family and Demographic Policy under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan
is the introduction of gender knowledge in education, to educate the public awareness of the need for legal
and gender equality, equitable social relations between men and women .
Research on gender education and gender studies actually conducted the Association of Business
Women of Kazakhstan, Almaty Women's Information Center, the Women's Union of intellectual work,
«Women of Kazakhstan», The gender information-analytical center of Karaganda, etc.
The third trend — centralization of gender studies and supervision of the organization of gender
education in practice.
Among the organizations as a research center in the field of gender studies are:
Center for Gender Studies;
Scientific Research Institute for Social and Gender Research at the Women's Institute of Education,
Center for Gender Education at the Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi,
For example, the Center for Gender Education created the Kazakh National University named after Al-
Farabi Kazakh National University, Research Institute for Social and Gender Studies — at the Kazakh State
Women's Pedagogical Institute.
The main mission of the Gender Education Center is to promote gender studies and gender studies in
the universities of Kazakhstan. The center was created to integrate gender in the content of higher education,
which broadens and deepens students' knowledge in this area, to improve the educational activities on gender
issues and the implementation of the gender policy in education .
In secondary education, gender RK limited items «Valeology», «Ethics and Psychology of Family
Life», «Self-knowledge». Gender approach implemented in physical education classes in the 5–11 grades,
where the segregation of boys and girls. In the system of secondary education gender issue is presented in the
academic disciplines of social and human sciences.
In higher education courses on gender issues, teach a «Gender», introduced a training course for the
«Introduction to the theory of gender». Developed training programs on gender education, is working to
create a gender-sensitive teaching materials for teachers and students. Gender perspective is included in the
state compulsory standards mean 12 years of education .
The inclusion of new issues in the content of school education is associated with a number of
difficulties, the main one of which is overloaded curriculum. Solutions to this problem:
inclusion of specific topics of gender in general courses in social science and history;
the inclusion of gender in the context of the above subjects, in explaining the individual topics of
integrated courses with the inclusion of gender issues in the core courses;
electives, independent courses;
the introduction of gender themes in scientific work of students, or the introduction of a gender
perspective in school activities .
Exchange of scientific and methodological experience organizing gender education and its distribution
is determined by us as a fourth trend.
Kazakhstan was held on various aspects of gender conferences at various levels. For example, I
Congress of women and gender NGOs of Kazakhstan (7–8 November 2008), «Equal rights and opportunities
for men and women» (2003), «Gender education: context, technology and policy» (2006). As the fifth trend
of gender education in Kazakhstan, we define the creation of Internet resources [19, 20], for example, gender
«Vestnik of Eurasia» (www.eavest.ru) etc.
Website «Gender Studies. Central Asian Network» was opened in December 2004, the Center for
Gender Studies, Almaty in order to compensate for a deficiency of educational materials in gender studies.
Russian-language resource for gender in teaching and research in the CIS is the most widely available. There
are a large number of scientific texts, full-text versions of collections, theses, abstracts, reviews, and
educational programs, resources on gender studies, etc.
Website «Women Silk Way» was opened in 1999, and renewed in 2004 contains texts of conventions,
laws, legislation, national programs, analyzes, statistics, media publications, bibliographies, curricula,
research papers, research reports and other features of the site is a function of the consolidation of the
women's movement in Central Asia, provides information on all the five countries of the region. Not a
specialized resource for gender education, but can be successfully used by teachers and students .
The presence of scientific research in the field of gender studies, we believe it is important to highlight
both the sixth trend. First identification of scientists in the field of gender relations was held in 1997, in
connection with the start of two projects initiated by the Bureau of the «Gender and Development», UNDP,
«Report on the Status of Women in the Republic of Kazakhstan» (Feminist League implemented in 1997)
and «Implementation gender subjects in high schools of Kazakhstan» (1998–99).
From 1995 to 2010, two PhD dissertations 30 master's theses on gender were defended. The most
susceptible to gender are sociology and political science. The purpose of the study of gender studies is in-
depth understanding of the social role of women in history and the modern world, the assessment of their
contribution to humanity. In order to have, gender studies, it is necessary to develop the concept of gender
education, which will determine the exact location of gender studies in the knowledge system .
Subject Gender Studies includes a certain common set of priority issues that attract the attention of
researchers: «The new economic strategies of men and women», «Different directions of transformation of
family relationships», «Violence against women», «Gender Stereotypes and the effects of various
ideologies», «Gender equality in education», «Women's political participation and political leadership» .
The seventh trend we define gender mainstreaming activities and programs of international and national
levels. For example, the international program «Development of gender education in CIS countries», which
was a national partner of the Feminist League of Kazakhstan. The main goal of the program is the
development of regional cooperation, a professional approach to research and teaching in the field of gender
studies, the establishment and expansion of sub-regional network of gender studies to support research,
information sharing and exchange of academic publications.
The ultimate goal of the program — help to change the system and standards of education in the post-
Soviet sub by introducing gender studies in higher education .
International organizations that promote progress in gender policy in Kazakhstan include the OSCE,
UNIFEM, UNDP and others. Since 2001, the OSCE and UNIFEM conducted gender activities in
Kazakhstan. Among these educational programs for women, children and parents to prevent traffic from
Kazakhstan and Central Asia Regional campaign for women's rights to a life free of violence, etc. One of the
most successful projects of the international organization, UNDP was the introduction of gender education in
schools and publication of the first textbook in conjunction with the Institute of Philosophy and Political
Science MES «Introduction to the theory of gender» in 1999 .
The eighth trend is the publication of literature on gender education. The works have been already
published such as «Introduction to the theory of gender» (Almaty: Institute of Philosophy and Political
Science, 1999), «Glossary of terms of gender» (Almaty: UNIFEM, 2001), S.Shakirov, A.Khamatdinova,
K.Yakhyaev «Popular gender education «(manual on training. — Almaty, 2002)», Principles of Gender
Education «(manual ed. G.T.Tanirbergenova. — Almaty: MES RK Institute for GIS KazSZhP, 2003), etc.
Academic literature on gender issues in the Kazakh language is very small. This is due to the lack of
social services for the publication of such literature and the lack of translation capacity of women's NGOs
and teachers are used to working in Russian. Thus, we can draw some conclusions:
1. Gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan is a significant problem for the state and develops a
rather favorable cultural and ideological background.
2. The current legislative framework, the impact of institutional, political, organizational, and financial
factors, the activities of research institutes and centers on gender create the conditions for the organization of
gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
3. Trends in gender education in the Republic of Kazakhstan are:
the ratification of international instruments and creating gender-sensitive government own legislative
framework governing the activities in this field;
the functioning of non-governmental organizations on gender and family-demographic policy and
implementation of social projects, in particular gender-based education;
centralization of gender studies and supervision of the organization of gender education in practice;
the exchange of scientific and methodological experience of the organization of gender education and
the creation of Internet-resources;
availability of scientific research in the field of gender studies;
activity programs gender international and national levels;
publication of literature on gender education.
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