АКАДЕМИК Р.СЫЗДЫКОВА И ПРОБЛЕМА ДИСКУРСА К.O. Есенова 1 1 Казахский Национальный Педагогический Университет имени Абая Академик Р.Сыздыкова в своих исследованиях рассматривает проблемы языковой личности тесно связанные с
речью. Во время языкового анализа художественного произведения, определив влияние читателя через текст,
увязывает его прагматической целью писателя. Также название текста накопившееся в течении прагматической
функции, в исследовании Р.Сыздыковой влияние на чувство адресата рассматривается как языковая единица. В
статье говориться составная часть функциональных направлений – некоторые проблемы прагмалингвистики
встречается в произведениях ученый Р.Сыздыковой .
И так, можно увидеть некоторые проблемы прагмалингвистики из произведениях исследователя. Языковые
единицы функции влияния языка употреблять в соответствии с его целью– на который учитывающийся возмож-
ность языка - вследствие субъектом языка, при подаче языковые единицы художественном мире ученый
Р.Сыздыкова на некоторых прагматических аспектах интуитивно выражает свою точку зрения. Только что
исследовавших основа этого направления в теории ученой Сыздыковой Р.
Ключевые слова: прагмалингвистика, дискурс, реципиент, адресант, адресат, языковая единица, литературный
язык, текст, слушатель, читатель, коммуникация, интрепретация, прессуппозиция, парцеллят.
Summary ACADEMICIAN R.SYZDYK AND PROBLEMS OF DISCOURSE K.O. Esenova 1 1 Abay Kazakh National Pedagogical University The academician R.Syzdykova, in his research considers problems of language personality closely connected to the
speech. During the analysis of the language in this artistic work, tries to determine the influence of the reader across the text. It
links its pragmatical purpose of the writer.
During the pragmatical function also the name of the text had accumulated, in the study of R.Syzdykova's influence to the
recipient's sense will be considered as the language unit. The article says a component of functional directions - some
problems of pragma linguistics is found in the works of the scientist R.Syzdykova.
And so, it is possible to see some problems of pragma linguistics from works of the researcher. To use language units of
function of influence language in accordance with his purpose - taking into account the possibilities of language – due to the
subject of language, to use language units on artistic world scientist of R.Syzdykova on some pragmatic aspects intuitively
expresses her point. Investigating the basis of this direction in the theory of scientist R.Syzdykova.
Key words: pragma linguistics, discourse, recipient, addresser, addressee, linguistic unit, literary language, text, listener,
reader, communication, interpretation, presupposition, parceling.
K.A. Zhanataev 1 , Zh.E. Sarsenbekova 2 1 Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan 2 Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan GENDER RESEARCHES IN FOREIGN LINGUISTICS Annotation The article deals with the approaches to studying of the gender presentations features in emotional conditions by means of
adjectives in the English art and publicist texts. In the last decades considerably increased the number of researches in the
language gender aspect that is connected with the address to the language personality as to an object and the purpose of
communication. Gender features establishment of the emotional conditions presentation acquired the special relevance. Now
within linguistic gender studies it isn't paid enough attention to the modern art texts studying, in particular female literature
works, and also female journalism texts. Gender stylistics development requires a gender research in the sphere of emotional
communication where this parameter is used as special style acceptance of an artistic image designing, and also a method of
the whole text composite semantic organization.
By search of pragmatic mechanisms in the coherent text and in the sentence quite often it is necessary to address such
units of language which express the meanings creating pragmatic effect. However in respect of pragmatics are studied only
separate lexicon groups. Information deficiency on pragmatic orientation of lexical meanings does the research urgent in
various lexicon layers in this aspect. The special interest is the studying of adjectives, as the semantic and pragmatic meanings
components can be combined in them: the subject-logical and emotional- estimative content.
Keywords: Gender, foreign linguistics, English art, an emotional conditions, pragmatic and semantic mechanisms, female
language, public consciousness
The gender relations penetrate all culture, social fabric, state institutes, decision-making methods and thinking
style. They leave the powerful mark on language, customs, and art. Integrity of gender approach is one of the
main lines which distinguishes it from "" or "feminine". E.I. Trofimova defines the gender researches in science as
the branch of knowledge by means of which it is studied "as this or that society defines, forms, fixes and
distributes in public consciousness and in consciousness of the individual has social roles of the woman and man
and also what consequences has this distribution for them. The gender analysis allows to study the modern society
from the point of view of its momentary states, considering process of the new social structure registration and
new social motivations. It deals with becoming, but not with become, and allows individuals to create explanatory
models of the modern social processes and states, to predict the scientific and correct prospects of their future
In linguistics the gender perspective is studied in two directions. First, is investigated the manifestation of a
gender in language system that makes a subject of feministic linguistics, which purpose to prove the male
dominance fixed in language. Secondly, is analyzed the realization of a gender in speeches, i.e. manifestation of
any gender characteristics in speech behavior and distinctions in the men and women speech. The greatest interest
in gender distinctions in language appeared in the mid-sixties when rapid development was gained by
communicative semantics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics. As E. I. Goroshko notes, it is connected with the fact that
studying of the language phenomena in their communicative, dynamic aspect is impossible without psycho-
physiological, social and stratification features of the personality (gender, age, education level, etc.) .
Differentiation of gender concepts meant an exit to the new theoretical level of the social processes judgment.
In the late eighties feministic researchers gradually pass from the patriarchy criticism and studying of specific
women's experience to the gender system analysis. Women's researches gradually develop into gender researches
where approaches according to which all aspects of human society, culture and relationship are gender are put in
the forefront .
In foreign linguistics for the first time the subject of language and gender received the scientific lighting at the
beginning of the 20th century. The reason of it was the fact that this perspective interested the linguists with the
world name (O. Jespersen, E. Sapir, F. Mautner) who based a number of the directions in linguistics of the 20th
century. Besides, on the first place in the linguistic description the social plan considering language in connection
with society and the person who is in it began to move forward, there were new directions in linguistics:
sociolinguistics, pragmatics, psycholinguistics, discourse and communication theory. And the experience of
distinctions studying between male and female options of language which is saved up on the basis of so-called
"primitive languages" began to be transferred to "civilized" European languages.
Вестник КазНПУ им. Абая, серия«Филология», №4(58), 2016 г. 40
In 1913 F.Mautner described distinctions in the speeches of native speakers in German caused by their gender.
He proved these distinctions by the social and historical reasons. The scientist studied functioning of language in
various social spheres and noticed that among factory workers the offensive language is used only by men. In
society of the man resorted to euphemisms which were allowed to be said also to women. According to F.
Mautner, women are less formed and therefore seek to use foreign words without need, being incapable to find an
equivalent in the native language. Only men are capable to use creatively language, women can only acquire what
is created by men. Concerning the concept "female language", the scientist connected its origin with traditions of
the ancient theater which gave the chance to begin to sound to female roles, and essential changes in the
equipment of dramatic art. As a matter of fact, it was absolutely new formulation of the question about influence
of unequal proposition of genders on the personality socialization .
Otto Jespersen in 1922 in his work "Language: Its Nature, Development and Origin" included the whole
chapter devoted to the description of distinctions between "female" and "male" speech behavior and marked out
the main features of female language competence . The scientist noted that women adhere to hyperbolic,
euphemistic expressions, speak more politely and softly, use diminutive words, are less inclined to curses, than
men, whose speech contains not conventional lexicon, a slang and whom the sharp manner of a conversation is
characteristic. According to O. Jespersen, women have more limited lexical stock, they build the offers "freely"
and leave them incomplete, constantly jumping from a subject on a subject. He drew these conclusions, based on
results of the emigrant groups researches which showed that women lack a lexical stock therefore they cannot
succeed in a learning of foreign language whereas men get used to the new environment quicker and are more
capable to language acquisition. This situation is wrong, O. Jespersen did not consider the fact that adaptation to
the new environment and language studying by the man it was dictated by need to provide the family, and at the
woman such need was absent since she mostly was in the isolated house environment. A lack of conclusions by
O. Jespersen is also the fact that it was based on popular stereotypes and characterized the woman as an
emotional, silly and indecisive being. However this work formed the theoretical basis for further scientific works
of feminists, sociologists, linguists in the sphere of gender studying.
The linguists began to be engaged in more detail in a question of distinctions researches in the men and women
speech only in the late sixties of the XXth century when close attention of researchers was drawn by influence on
language "a human factor". Studying of the language phenomena began to be conducted taking into account social
factors and psycho-physiological features of the personality (age, education level, gender, etc.). As note
E.I. Goroshko and A.B. Kirilina, development of quantitative linguistics which provided the extensive statistical
device and quantitative material about features of the language in various social groups functioning was an
incitement for these researches. All levels of language were analyzed, beginning from phonetics and ending the
discourse and style features of speech in general. Experiments were made taking into account influence to a
number of social and psychological factors on the speech of examinees, was learned both the oral, and written
In particular, P.Trudgill, in one of the chapters in his book "Sociolinguistics" indicates that women use
"conservative" language, and it partially is explained by actually existing distinctions in attitude of both genders,
and partially – socially certain role expectations. He notes that women in the West is also observed the tendency
to exact respect for all norms and rules of phonetics and grammar, i.e. to the use of traditional language while men
have a tendency to negligence in a pronunciation and grammar. It is explained by various expectations of people
around in relation to men and women which they try to justify with language execution of gender roles. Thus,
language distinctions on a gender sign are, according to P.Trudgill, the investigation of the relation of the men and
women surrounding to behavior and, their relations to the language following from here as to a social symbol .
It should be noted that practically all linguistic and socio-linguistic researches of that time addressed the
subject "language and gender" as peripheral and considered language of women as insufficient in comparison
with language of men. In the mid-seventies of the XXth century the feminist movement which arose in the USA
and Germany gave the most powerful incentive to scientific research of female and male languages. In the result
of it in linguistics was arisen the peculiar direction called feministic linguistics, or feministic language criticism. It
is possible to refer its pronounced polemic character, attraction to the linguistic description of all range of sciences
results about the person to its specifics (to psychology, sociology, ethnography, anthropology, history etc.), and
also a number of successful attempts to influence language policy .
First linguistic researches within feministic linguistics were sent to search and the description of the specific
language means peculiar for the speech speaking only one gender. Robin Lakoff's work "Language and woman's
place" became fundamental where the author declared that there are two styles of the speech: "neutral language"
and "women's language". R. Lakoff was engaged in studying of "women's language" and found out that it differs
Абай атындағы ҚазҰПУ-нің Хабаршысы, «Филология» сериясы, №4(58), 2016 ж. 41
from language of men because women hold minor position in all important spheres of life. This strength lack
position of the woman is reflected, according to R. Lakoff, in a behavior manner which is expected from the
woman, on how they speak, and on how they are spoken about .
In Europe the subject of language and gender interrelation was for the first time mentioned in 1978 on the VIII
World sociological congress in Uppsala (Sweden). In a year took place the International symposium on female
linguistics at university in Osnabruck city (Germany). The understanding of language as powerful instrument of
the patriarchal values preservation was the most widespread point of view in that time. In particular, D. Spender
speaks about the English as about "manmade" and considers that it in its current state makes a considerable
contribution to women oppression business. The author writes that "men as the dominating group, created
language, thinking and reality. Historically it were structures, categories and meanings created by men, though, of
course, not by all men, and then they "extended" also to all other men. Women in this process were of little
importance, or did not participate at all". And further D. Spender notes: "When one group has monopoly in word
formation, its prejudice can be reflected in semantics of names which it creates, and these "new created" help to
keep and fix the initial prejudice put in them". On the basis of it the conclusion is drawn that "those who have the
power to call this world, can make on it impact" .
According to L.Irigaray, the patriarchal language representing itself as universal and neutral is actually made
according to male interest: "We will lose all characteristics of so-called this language neutrality if we ask a
question of sexual indicators of a pronunciation who speaks?, to whom? and in whose interests? Usually say men
- to women: men philosophers, men scientists, men writers. Women remain perception and interpretation objects,
a source of the metaphors and images necessary for production of discourse, suitable for a pronunciation but
separate from a position of the making subjects. To speak as the woman, means to deny monopoly of traditional
discursive domination". The basic in language strategy of L. Irigaray is not what has to be female language, and
what it should not be: it should not be based on the hierarchical organization, polar oppositions, the subject and
predicative form and trans-convertibility .
So, when studying speech and in general communicative behavior the gender factor began to be considered.
However in recent years its role is not considered so radical as it was at the initial stage. The gender is considered
as one of parameters of the social identity creation speaking in the course of communication. As a rule, the gender
interacts with the other parameters - the social status, age, education, etc.
J.Coates in the book "Women, Men and Language" considers the communication fields where language
gender distinctions have socially undesirable consequences. Discussing communicative failures between adults at
the mixed communication, the author comes to a conclusion that women and men talk differently and have
various rules of conducting dialogue, connecting this fact with their belonging to various subcultures .
One of the well-known works in this area became the work by Deborah Tannen "You just don't understand.
Women and men in conversation" . D.Tannen claims that there are gender distinctions in a communication
manner and that we need to distinguish and understand them to avoid unnecessary charges in the address "others
or ourselves – or our relations - for sometimes the nonplusing and destroying consequences of our communication
contrasting styles" . Investigating these gender distinctions, D.Tannen uses the socio-linguistic approach,
explaining it with the fact that "boys and girls grow up in absolutely different cultures... the conversation between
women and men - is cross-cultural communication" . The author notes that gender distinctions "are built in"
language. Each person life represents series of dialogues, and, just understanding and using words of our
language, all of us comprehend and we give different, asymmetric ideas of men and women . D.Tannen
analyzes communicative failures in communication of a different gender persons and explains them with the
different requirements imposed by society to men and women. According to her point of view, women in a
conversation use language for creation of proximity, by D.Tannen terminology "conversation-contact". Girls are
brought up with a thought that "the conversation is a glue which holds the relations"  therefore in adulthood
communication for women – "negotiations on rapprochement during which people try to find and give approval
and support and to reach a consent" . The communication purpose for men is exchange of information (i.e.
"conversation-report"). They conduct a conversation, trying to hold leadership in a conversation and to protect
himself from conscious attempts of interlocutors to suppress them, in other words the men's speech is aimed at
achievement and preservation of independence and the high status. Boys in the childhood learn to keep the
relations mainly at the expense of the acts therefore communication for adult men becomes "competition" .
Speaking about the different purposes of communication and interpretation of statements by men and women,
D.Tannen enters the concept "genderleсt" (gender dialect) – socially and culturally caused features of men and
women communication: "If the woman uses language of interrelation and proximity, and the man – language of
the status and independence, then their communication can be similar to cross-cultural communication, "victim"
of communication styles collision. Only they speak not on different dialects, and on different genderleсt" .
Вестник КазНПУ им. Абая, серия«Филология», №4(58), 2016 г. 42
The genderlect theory did not find special support in linguistics. So, Deborah Cameron in her article
"Reconsideration of linguistic and gender researches: some results of the 90th" stated by a number of critical
remarks to the concept of D. Tannen, noting narrow-mindedness of her views, in particular "a social reality" of
life ("social essentialism"), and also popular character of a statement, suggesting to apply, in turn, to a language
research thought more over theoretical approach .
Emergence of gender researches in the foreign linguistics is dated usually the middle of the 90th of the 20th
century. During this period in the Russian scientific literature the term "gender" appeared, and foreign theoretical
works on a gender perspective became available to the reader. The linguistics did not ignore a gender problem,
and considered it (even before emergence of the term "gender") within other linguistic disciplines. These
researches were not system, did not apply for the status of the scientific direction and were not connected with the
theory of social constructivism, but the scientists made the contribution to development of a perspective, after
become an object of gender researches.
Rapid development of actually gender researches in the humanity begins with the middle of the 90th of the
20th century. At the initial stage of gender perspective development research developed not differentially, in the
center of attention of scientists there were all-methodological questions, in particular, the gender ontology status.
Originally the Russian scientists systematized concepts of foreign scientists, discussed possibilities of the foreign
methods and techniques on Russian material application, collected and generalized material of researches relating
to a gender perspective. There was a judgment of a gender, both a natural, and conventional phenomenon. Within
such approach the general principles of gender researches were formulated, conventionality of a gender which is
shown unequally in various cultural and language communities at various stages of their development admits to
the major .
The essential contribution to development of the lingual and cultural direction and methodology of gender
researches was brought by the school of sciences which developed at the Moscow state linguistic university. This
university scientists for the first time made and confirmed a number of hypotheses which allowed to rethink early
propositions of the gender theory thanks to the Russian and some other languages studying.
Within our research distinctions of the male and female speech, i.e. conditional allocation of lexical
preferences and some other features of the use of language depending on the gender speaking are of special
interest. The practical orientation of the Russian gender researches, however was already noted and in the foreign
linguistic practice it is possible to find a number of the works investigating distinctions of a men and women
behavior speech. We consider necessary to generalize some results of these researches.
Despite extensive study in linguistics as a unit of language and speech, from a methodological point of view,
the text was studied exclusively at a limited level. And as a consequence, the data in the textbooks and teaching
guides samples by its subject, scope and style were met with mixed, left open the question about what criteria they
had used in their selection. Studies show that when you build techniques work on the text without considering the
peculiarities inherent in him, while learning there are certain difficulties. I.R. Galperin in summary form
summarizes these features: "the Text is a work receptorsare process with perfection, objectified in the form of a
written document, literary processed in accordance with the type of this document, the product consisting of the
name (title) and some special units (super - phrasal unities) combined different types of lexical, grammatical,
logical, stylistic context, with a specific focus and pragmatic installation"
Depending on writing in fiction and other styles, build in monological and dialogi - cal speech forms carry
descriptive, narrative and judicious character, the text presents a rich features. However, its characteristic as a
"unity proposals with strong internal structural and semantic relationships" is a main feature of the text (4, p. 433).
The integrity of the text meaning, target, stilistika and grammatical points of view offers exceptional location in
the text as units of communicative language learning process. Given the possession in comparison with the word
and offer more features, work on language lessons on the text distinguished by its variety. Therefore, in the
formation of speech and language abilities of students in the cognitive development of the text acts as the
exclusive means. However, building work on any text without compliance with appropriate didactic and
methodical requirements does not provide the expected competencies. Therefore, in the first place, must be
specified data when you select the text of the requirement, and on this basis, given the content of the training. So,
first and foremost, needs to be defined these requirements when you select text, and on this basis should be given
to the content of training .
References: 1 Trofimov, E. I. Feminism and women's literature in Russia [Text] / E. I. Trofimova // materials of the First Russian summer school on women's and gender studies "Valday-96" / MCGS. - M., 1997. - Pp. 47-52. 2 Goroshko, E. I. Speaker gender (Quantitative studies in the linguistic-related). http://www.genderstudies.info/lingvo/lingvo2.
Абай атындағы ҚазҰПУ-нің Хабаршысы, «Филология» сериясы, №4(58), 2016 ж. 43
3 Voronina, O. A. fundamentals of Gender theory and methodology [Text] / O. A. Voronina // Materials of International conference "Gender education", 4-5 November 2003. - Bhuj, 2004. - S. 72-80. 4 Kirilina, A. B. Gender studies in linguistics today [Text] / B. A. Kirilina, E. I. Goroshko // Gender studies. — 1999. — No. 2. — S. 234-241. 5 Jespersen, Otto. Language: Its Nature, Development and Origin [Text] / O. Jespersen. - London: George Allen&Unwin Ltd., 1949. - 448 p. 6 Trudgill, P. Sociolinguistics [Text] / P. Trudgill. - Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1974. 7 Lakoff, Robin Tolmach. Language and woman's place [Text] / R. T. Lakoff. - New York: Harper & Row, 1975. 8 Spender, D. Man made language [Text] / D. Spender // Introduction in the tender study. H II: a reader / ed. by C. B. Zherebkina. — Kharkiv: KCGS, 2001; SPb.: Aletheia, 2001. - S. 774-783. 9 Irigaray, L. Genealogy of women [Text] / L. Irigaray // "Read my desire...": Postmodernism, psychoanalysis, feminism. / I. A. Zherebkina. - M.: Idea-Press: Olesya Nazarova, 2000. - Pp. 175-177. 10 Coates, John. Women, men and language [Text] / J. Coates // Gender and language: [a collection of translations] / Moscow state linguistic University; Laboratory of Gender studies, scientific. ed. and comp. D. of philological Sciences. Sciences, Professor B. A. Kirilina. -Moscow: Languages of Slavonic culture, 2005. - S. 31-231. 11 Tannen, D. You just don't understand. Women and men in conversation [Text] / D. Tannen. - N. Y., 1990. 12 Cameron, Deborah. Rethinking language and gender studies: some issues for the 1990s [Text] /D.Cameron// Language and gender: Interdisciplinary perspectives, edited by Sara Mills. - Longman, London and New York, 1995. – P. 31- 44. 13 Kirilina, A. B. Linguistic Gender studies [Text] / B. A. Kirilina, M. V. Tomsk // Local notes. 14 Zamanova F. C., Ways of the organization of the text in forming language skills of students // вестн. казнпу.сер.фил – 2015. – Т.1 №4(48). – с. 284-288