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  • Достық пен татулық – таптырмас бақыт
  • Кәсіп – бақыттың шырағы
  • Ертеде ата-бабаларымыз амандасқанда: «Мал-жан аман ба?» – деп сұрайтын. Осы бір ауыз сөздің өзінен қазақ өмірінде малдың орны ерекше екенін ұғуға болады. Малдың күші, сүті, жүні, еті, терісі – халықтың тағамы, киімі, баспанасы, үй жиһазы – өмірінің, т...
  • Барлық мал бағушы халықтардың қаншама өзгешеліктері болғанымен, ұқсастықтары да бар. Олар: жауынгерлік, табиғат талқысына көнбістік, поэзияға, көркем тілге, ойға тапқырлық, салт-дәстүрінің ұқсастығы.
  • Сонымен қатар табиғат, жер-су өзгешеліктеріне байланысты әрбір халықтың өзіне тән ерекшеліктері болады.
  • Қазақ халқы негізінен мал шаруашылығымен айналысты. Сонымен қатар ертеден-ақ қазақ егіншілікпен де айналысқан. Бірақ оны кең көлемде дамыта алмады. Балық аулау да, аңшылық та қазақта бар кәсіп, бірақ олар негізгі тіршілік амалына айналмаған.
  • Достық пен татулық – таптырмас бақыт
  • Кәсіп – бақыттың шырағы
  • Қазақ өзінің малын қой-ешкі, жылқы, түйе, сиыр деп төрт түлікке бөледі. Осы төрт түлік малдың әрқайсысын қазақ халқы барынша өнімді, толық пайдалануды үйренді. Бұдан басқа да үй хайуандарының ( есек, ит, шошқа, т.б) өнімін пайдалануы мүмкін еді, бірақ...
  • Мал бағудың өзіндік тәсілдері бар, онымен айналысқан ел малдың қасиетін, кемшіліктерін жете білген. Мал шаруашылығы егін шаруашылығына, балықшылықққа қарағанда еңбекті көп қажет етеді. Әйтсе де қазақ осы тіршілікте де поэзияны, әсемдікті тауып көре бі...
  • Жер-судың ыңғайына қарай жайлау мен қыстаудың арақашықтығы әртүрлі келеді. Таулы жерлерде жайлау жақын болады, 100 шақырымнан аспайды; жартылай көшпелі немесе, отырықшы шаруашылықтың көші-қоны оданда қысқа, 20-30 шақырымдай. Ал тегіс даланы мекендеген...
  • Қой шаруашылығы қазақтың көшпелі шаруашылығының негізі болып табылады. Кең-байтақ жердің шөбі мен суы – тиімді пайдаланудың кезіндегі ең бір ұтымды тәсілі. Солтүстік Қазақстанның суығына, ұзақ қысы, қалың қары мен боранына қой малы шыдамайды, жабулы қ...
  • Ал Оңтүстіктің қысында жазда жиған күйімен қиналмай, қыстан шығып, көктемде екі-үш қойдың біреуі – егіз қозы табады. Екі ешкінің бірі егіз лақ табады. Осындай жағдайда мыңдаған жылдардың барысында денсаулығы күшті, тез ет алғыш, табиғаттың ыстық-суығы...
  • Дружба
    • Репейник
      • Зеркало и его осколки
      • Однажды Юноша-Солнце растопил теплым светом холодное сердце звездной красавицы. Он сделал ей предложение руки и сердца, Луна благосклонно приняла его, и стала готовиться к свадьбе.
      • Прекрасным днем Солнце решил навестить свою невесту. Когда он пришел, Луна белила комнату и предложила жениху помочь ей. Юношу ответил, что негоже ему, королю-Солнце, пачкаться в белила, что он слишком красив и изящен для такой работы. Луна, как и под...
  • Что такое северное сияние?
  • Рассказ о чудаке
  • The Farmer and His Sons
    • First Computer Programmer
      • Computers and Ears
  • Google Reveals The Computers Behind The Cloud
  • Computational Thinking--What and Why?
  • By Jeannette M. Wing
  • In March 2006 article for the Communications of the ACM, I used the term "computational thinking" to articulate a vision that everyone, not just those who major in computer science, can benefit from thinking like a computer scientist [Wing06]. So, wha...
    • Databases: Their Creation, Management and Utilization
    • The Digital Divide
    • The First Computer Programmer
  • Atom-sized transistor created by scientists
  • Computers
  • The first hackers
  • Computer crimes
  • Algorithm - how do I feel?
  • The Art of Sitting: How to sit in your ergonomic chair correctly
    • Correct working posture
    • Poor working posture
    • You can slouch if you need to in an ergonomic chair
      • Correct slouch
      • Incorrect slouch
      • Physical ergonomics
      • Cognitive ergonomics[edit]
      • Organizational ergonomics[edit]
        • Password Protection
        • Antivirus and Malware Protection
        • Firewalls
        • Codes and Cyphers
        • Legal Liability
        • Training and Common Sense
  • Retrospective: An Axiomatic Basis for Computer Programming
    • Progress (1999–2009)
    • Prospective
    • The End
    • Keyboard symbols
      • Shift states
      • Character map
  • Computer Screens Harder To Understand, Less Persuasive
  • Conservation law
    • Single Slit Diffraction
    • Single Slit Diffraction - One Wavelength
    • Mathematically equivalent formulations of quantum mechanics[edit]
    • Interactions with other scientific theories[edit]
      • Quantum mechanics and classical physics[edit]
      • Copenhagen interpretation of quantum versus classical kinematics[edit]
      • General relativity and quantum mechanics[edit]
      • Attempts at a unified field theory[edit]
      • Religious or mythological cosmology[edit]
      • Philosophical cosmology[edit]
    • Theoretical astrophysics [edit]
  • a. Conservation law
  • b. Oscillation and Wave
  • Thermodynamics
    • Single Slit Diffraction - Four Wavelengths
      • 1. Elastic scattering[edit]
      • 2. Inelastic collision[edit]
      • Different types of bonds hold molecules and compounds together.
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Water's Importance to Life
  • The Structure of Water
  • Properties of Water
    • The Octet and Duet Rules
    • Ionic Bonds
    • Covalent Bonds
    • Polar Covalent Bonds
    • Hydrogen Bonds
      • What is the History of Periodic Law?
      • What is the importance of the Periodic law?
      • - Innovation of New Elements: Through Mendeleyev’s efforts in 1871, the grand significance of the periodic law was made apparent in predicting that the properties of the 17 elements could be interrelated with those of other elements by relocating the ...
      • - Implication of atomic numbers: A number of of the elements in the Mendeleyev periodic tables were necessary to arrange elements according to their atomic weight . For example, in the pair’s of argon and potassium, cobalt and nickel, and tellurium an...
      • How did the periodic law evolve ?
      • Mass conservation in chemistry[edit]
    • Generalization
      • The mass associated with chemical amounts of energy is too small to measure
      • Mass conservation remains correct if energy is not lost
    • Exceptions or caveats to mass/matter conservation
    • Matter is not perfectly conserved
      • Open systems and thermodynamically closed systems
      • General relativity
  • Reactivity Series
    • Reactivity Series of Metals
      • Differences between metals & non-metals.
    • Reactivity Series Chart
    • Why Exothermic Or Endothermic?
    • Formal definition of reaction rate[edit]
    • Factors influencing rate of reaction[edit]
    • - The nature of the reaction: Some reactions are naturally faster than others. The number of reacting species, their physical state (the particles that form solids move much more slowly than those of gases or those in solution), the complexity of the ...
    • - Concentration: Reaction rate increases with concentration, as described by the rate law and explained by collision theory. As reactant concentration increases, the frequencyof collision increases.
    • - Pressure: The rate of gaseous reactions increases with pressure, which is, in fact, equivalent to an increase in concentration of the gas.The reaction rate increases in the direction where there are fewer moles of gas and decreases in the reverse di...
    • - Order: The order of the reaction controls how the reactant concentration (or pressure) affects reaction rate.
    • - Temperature: Usually conducting a reaction at a higher temperature delivers more energy into the system and increases the reaction rate by causing more collisions between particles, as explained by collision theory. However, the main reason that tem...
    • Rate equation[edit]
      • Example of a complex reaction: Reaction of hydrogen and nitric oxide[edit]
    • Temperature dependence
    • Pressure dependence
    • Common symbols[edit]
    • Balancing chemical equations
    • Ionic equations
    • Common acid-base theories
      • Lavoisier definition
      • Liebig definition
      • Arrhenius definition
      • Brønsted-Lowry definition
      • Lewis definition
      • Solvent-system definition
    • Other acid-base theories
      • Usanovich definition
      • Lux-Flood definition
      • Pearson definition
    • Earth Chemistry
    • The Earth and its Lithospher
    • Chemical composition of the Earth
    • Structure of the Earth
      • The Earth's Core
      • The mantle
      • The crust
        • The oceanic crust
        • Plate collisions
  • Carbon and its Compounds
    • Carbon
    • Combustion
    • Allotrope of Carbon
      • Polar Covalent Bonds
  • The Periodic Law and periodic system
    • Law of Conservation of Mass
    • Table
    • There is no unique and fully consistent way to define the reactivity series, but it is common to use the three types of reaction listed below, many of which can be performed in a high-school laboratory (at least as demonstrations).[4]
    • Reaction with water and acids[edit]
    • The most reactive metals, such as sodium, will react with cold water to produce hydrogen and the metal hydroxide:
    • 2 Na (s) + 2 H2O (l) →2 NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)
    • Metals in the middle of the reactivity series, such as iron, will react with acids such as sulfuric acid (but not water at normal temperatures) to give hydrogen and a metal salt, such as iron(II) sulfate:
    • An iron nail placed in a solution of copper sulfate will quickly change colour as metallic copper is deposited and the iron is converted into iron(II) sulfate:
    • Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)
    • Similarly, magnesium can be used to extract titanium from titanium tetrachloride, forming magnesium chloride in the process:
    • 2 Mg (s) + TiCl4 (l) → Ti (s) + 2 MgCl2 (s)
    • However, other factors can come into play, such as in the preparation of metallic potassium by the reduction of potassium chloride with sodium at 850  C. Although sodium is lower than potassium in the reactivity series, the reaction can proceed becaus...
    • Na (g) + KCl (l) → K (g) + NaCl (l)
    • Comparison with standard electrode potentials[edit]
    • The reactivity series is sometimes quoted in the strict reverse order of standard electrode potentials, when it is also known as the "electrochemical series":
    • Li > K > Sr > Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Mn > Zn > Cr(+3) > Fe > Cd > Co > Ni > Sn > Pb > H > Cu > Hg > Ag > Pd > Ir > Pt > Au
    • The positions of lithium and sodium are changed on such a series; gold and platinum are in joint position and not gold leading, although this has little practical significance as both metals are highly unreactive.
    • Standard electrode potentials offer a quantitative measure of the power of a reducing agent, rather than the qualitative considerations of other reactive series. However, they are only valid for standard conditions: in particular, they only apply to r...
    • potassium > sodium > lithium > alkaline earth metals,
    • the same as the reverse order of the (gas-phase) ionization energies. This is borne out by the extraction of metallic lithium by the electrolysis of a eutectic mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride: lithium metal is formed at the cathode,...
  • Non-metals in the reactivity series
  • Reaction Rate
    • Definition of reaction rate
    • Instantaneous rates
    • Introduction
    • Rate Laws and Rate Constants
    • Temperature Dependence
      • Reaction Rate
      • Rate Constant
    • Catalysts
    • Reaction Order
    • Sample Problems
    • Answers
    • Lewis Theory
    • Amphoterism and Water[edit]
    • Properties of Acids and Bases
      • Indicators
      • Conductivity
      • Physical properties
      • Chemical Reactions
        • Neutralization
        • Acids
        • Bases
    • Defining the Earth’s Boundaries and Elements
    • Earth Chemistry
  • Chemistry of Carbon and Its Compounds
    • Carbon: Introduction
    • Starting materials: the chemical elements of life[edit]
    • Biomolecules[edit]
      • Carbohydrates
      • Lipids
      • Proteins
      • Nucleic acids
    • Metabolism[edit]
      • Carbohydrates as energy source
        • Glycolysis (anaerobic)[edit]
        • Aerobic[edit]
        • Gluconeogenesis[edit]
    • Relationship to other "molecular-scale" biological sciences[edit]
      • (b) Dicotyledonous: There are two cotyledons in a seed. Examples: Mustard, gram, mango, etc.
      • Technology
    • The Major
  • What do biophysicists study?
    • What Is an Element?
    • Anytime a ‘stranger’ (living thing(s) or external factor such as rise in temperature) is introduced to an ecosystem, it can be disastrous to that ecosystem. This is because the new organism (or factor) can distort the natural balance of the interactio...
    • Usually, biotic members of an ecosystem, together with their abiotic factors depend on each other. This means the absence of one member or one abiotic factor can affect all parties of the ecosystem.
    • Unfortunately, ecosystems have been disrupted, and even destroyed by natural disasters such as fires, floods, storms and volcanic eruptions. Human activities have also contributed to the disturbance of many ecosystems and biomes. Scales of Ecosystems
    • Ecosystems come in indefinite sizes. It can exist in a small area such as underneath a rock, a decaying tree trunk, or a pond in your village, or it can exist in large forms such as an entire rain forest. Technically, the Earth can be called a huge ec...
    • What is energy?
    • Look around you. Is anything moving?
    • Can you hear, see or feel anything? Sure... this is because something is making something happen, and most probably, there is some power at work. This power or ability to make things happen is what we can call energy. It makes things happen. It makes ...
    • Look at the sketch below to see an example of things working, moving, or happening... with energy.
    • Energy in action
    • Energy moves cars along the roads and makes aeroplanes fly. It plays our music on the radio, heats our rooms and lights our homes. Energy is needed for our bodies, together with plants to grow and move about.
    • Scientists define ENERGY as the ability to do work.
    • Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
    • Energy can be (is) stored or transferred from place to place, or object to object in different ways. There are various kinds of energy.
    • Let's start by looking at kinetic energy.
    • Kinetic Energy
    • All moving things have kinetic energy. It is energy possessed by an object due to its motion or movement. These include very large things, like planets, and very small ones, like atoms. The heavier a thing is, and the faster it moves, the more kinetic...
    • Now let's see this illustration below.
    • There is a small and large ball resting on a table.
    • Kinetic energy example
    • Let us say both balls will fall into the bucket of water.
    • What is going to happen?
    • Motion energy example
    • You will notice that the smaller ball makes a little splash as it falls into the bucket. The heavier ball makes a very big splash. Why?
    • Note the following:
    • 1. Both balls had potential energy as they rested on the table.
    • 2. By resting up on a high table, they also had gravitational energy.
    • 3. By moving and falling off the table (movement), potential and gravitational energy changed to Kinetic Energy. Can you guess which of the balls had more kinetic energy? (The big and heavier ball).
    • Mechanical Energy
    • Mechanical energy is often confused with Kinetic and Potential Energy. We will try to make it very easy to understand and know the difference. Before that, we need to understand the word ‘Work’.
    • ‘Work’ is done when a force acts on an object to cause it to move, change shape, displace, or do something physical. For, example, if I push a door open for my pet dog to walk in, work is done on the door (by causing it to open). But what kind of forc...
    • Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic and potential energy in an object that is used to do work. In other words, it is energy in an object due to its motion or position, or both. In the 'open door' example above, I possess potential chemical energy ...
    • Here is another example of a boy with an iron hammer and nail.
    • The iron hammer on its own has no kinetic energy, but it has some potential energy (because of its weight).
    • To drive a nail into the piece of wood (which is work), he has to lift the iron hammer up, (this increases its potential energy because if its high position).
    • And force it to move at great speed downwards (now has kinetic energy) to hit the nail.
    • The sum of the potential and kinetic energy that the hammer acquired to drive in the nail is called the Mechanical energy, which resulted in the work done.
    • Sound Waves
    • Sound energy is usually measured by its pressure and intensity, in special units called pascals and decibels. Sometimes, loud noise can cause pain to people. This is called the threshold of pain. This threshold is different from person to person. For ...
    • Heat (Thermal energy)
    • Matter is made up of particles or molecules. These molecules move (or vibrate) constantly. A rise in the temperature of matter makes the particles vibrate faster. Thermal energy is what we call energy that comes from the temperature of matter. The hot...
    • For example, a cup of hot tea has thermal energy in the form of kinetic energy from its vibrating particles. When you pour some milk into your hot tea, some of this energy is transferred from the hot tea to the particles in the cold milk. What happens...
    • Temperature
    • The temperature of an object is to do with how hot or cold it is, measured in degrees Celsius ( C). Temperature can also be measured in a Fahrenheit scale, named after the German physicist called Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686 – 1736). It is denoted ...
    • A thermometer is an instrument used to measure the temperature of an object.
    • Let's look at this example to see how thermal energy and temperature are related:
    • A swimming pool at 40 C is at a lower temperature than a cup of tea at 90 C. However, the swimming pool contains a lot more water. Therefore, the pool has more thermal energy than the cup of tea even though the tea is hotter than the water in the pool.
    • Let us see this example below:
    • If we want to boil the water in these two beakers, we must increase their temperatures to 100 C. You will notice that will take longer to boil the water in the large beaker than the water in the small beaker. This is because the large beaker contains ...
    • Heal The World
      • Abnormal warming
      • Warmer average temperatures
      • Sea level rise
      • Changes in precipitation amounts and patterns
    • Scope
    • Green Chemistry provides a unique forum for the publication of innovative research on the development of alternative sustainable technologies.
    • The scope of Green Chemistry is based on, but not limited to, the definition proposed by Anastas and Warner (Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, P T Anastas and J C Warner, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998). Green chemistry is the utilisation o...
    • Substance structure
    • Atomic structure
    • What Is an Element?
    • Natural resources and power
    • Power resources
    • Ecosystems and sustainable development
    • Ecosystems and populations
    • Consider a small puddle at the back of your home. In it, you may find all sorts of living things, from microorganisms to insects and plants. These may depend on non-living things like water, sunlight, turbulence in the puddle, temperature, atmospheric...
    • This is very complex, wonderful interaction of living things and their environment has been the foundations of energy flow and recycle of carbon and nitrogen.
    • Anytime a ‘stranger’ (living thing(s) or external factor such as rise in temperature) is introduced to an ecosystem, it can be disastrous to that ecosystem. This is because the new organism (or factor) can distort the natural balance of the interactio...
    • Usually, biotic members of an ecosystem, together with their biotic factors depend on each other. This means the absence of one member or one biotic factor can affect all parties of the ecosystem.
    • Unfortunately, ecosystems have been disrupted, and even destroyed by natural disasters such as fires, floods, storms and volcanic eruptions. Human activities have also contributed to the disturbance of many ecosystems and biomes.
    • Scales of Ecosystems
    • Ecosystems come in indefinite sizes. It can exist in a small area such as underneath a rock, a decaying tree trunk, or a pond in your village, or it can exist in large forms such as an entire rain forest. Technically, the Earth can be called a huge ec...
    • The illustration above shows an example of a small (decaying tree trunk) ecosystem
    • To make things simple, let us classify ecosystems into three main scales.
    • Micro:
    • A small scale ecosystem such as a pond, puddle, tree trunk, under a rock etc.
    • Mess:
    • A medium scale ecosystem such as a forest or a large lake.
    • Biome:
    • A very large ecosystem or collection of ecosystems with similar biotic and a biotic factors such as an entire rainforest with millions of animals and trees, with many different water bodies running through them.
    • Sustainable development. Nature protection
      • Environment protection
    • New materials and technologies on service of the person
    • Dependence on properties of substances: their composition and structure
      • Biological materials and biomaterial
    • Plasma, membrane, tissue, protein, lipid, enzyme, the digestive system, and the central nervous systems are some examples of biological materials, for which properties for consideration include growth and decay, turn over time, biological half life, r...
    • The chemistry of living is complex, and properties of biological materials towards biomaterials are of great interest. The general reaction of biological materials towards foreign biomaterials is expel (or rejection). Living tissues form a thin layer ...
    • Biological activities of materials can be divided according to biological functions. Substances that provide nutrition, energy, and structural need are called food, whereas those that disrupt the normal functions are called toxins. Substances used to ...
    • Development of drugs
      • Pre-clinical
  • What is Biotechnology?
  • At its simplest, biotechnology is technology based on biology - biotechnology harnesses cellular and bimolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet. We have used the biological proce...
    • Heal The World
    • Fuel The World
    • Person and his health
    • Person and environment
  • Interaction of the person with the nature
    • Improved water sources
    • Water treatment
  • What is Green Chemistry?


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