Drinking water, also known as potable water or improved drinking of water, is
water safe enough for drinking and food preparation. Globally, in 2012, 89% of
people had access to water suitable for drinking.
Nearly 4 billion had access to tap
still use an unsafe drinking water source which may be contaminated by feces.
Water is essential for life. The amount of drinking water required is variable. It
depends on physical activity, age, health issues, and environmental conditions.
estimated that the average American drinks about one liter of water a day with 95%
drinking less than three liters per day.
liters a day may be required.
Water makes up about 60% of weight in men and 55%
Typically in developed countries, tap water meets drinking water quality
preparation. Other typical uses include washing, toilets, and irrigation. Grey water
may also be used for toilets or irrigation. Its use for irrigation however may be
associated with risks.
Water may also be unacceptable due to levels of toxins or
resources is a major public health goal in developing countries. Bottled water is sold
for public consumption in most parts of the world. The word potable came into
English from the Late Latin potabilis, meaning drinkable.
Improved water sources
Access to safe drinking water is indicated by safe water sources. These
borehole condition, protected dug well, protected spring, and rain water collection.
Sources that do not encourage improved drinking water to the same extent as
previously mentioned include: unprotected wells, unprotected springs, rivers or
ponds, vender-provided water, bottled water (consequential of limitations in quantity,
not quality of water), and tanker truck water. Access to sanitary water comes hand in
hand with access to improved sanitation facilities for excreta, such as connection to
public sewer, connection to septic system, or a pit latrine with a slab or water seal.
Main articles: Water purification and Water treatment
Most water requires some type of treatment before use, even water from deep
wells or springs. The extent of treatment depends on the source of the water.
Appropriate technology options in water treatment include both community-scale and
household-scale point-of-use (POU) designs. Only few large urban areas such as
Christchurch, New Zealand have access to sufficiently pure water of sufficient
volume that no treatment of the raw water is required.
In emergency situations when conventional treatment systems have been
compromised, waterborne pathogens may be killed or inactivated by boiling but this
requires abundant sources of fuel, and can be very onerous on consumers, especially
where it is difficult to store boiled water in sterile conditions. Other techniques, such
as filtration, chemical disinfection, and exposure to ultraviolet radiation (including
solar UV) have been demonstrated in an array of randomized control trials to
significantly reduce levels of water-borne disease among users in low-income
Another type of water treatment is called desalination and is used mainly in dry
areas with access to large bodies of saltwater.
Global warming is the average warming of Earth's atmosphere and surface.
Although global warming has occurred frequently in Earth's past, in the modern use
of the term global warming describes increases in average temperatures outside of
changes expected as a result of natural, cyclic variations. A related term,
anthropogenic (human-caused) global warming (AGW), is used to indicate that
global warming is the result of human activity, especially agricultural and industrial
practices that emit greenhouse gases. Global warming does not mean that all places
on Earth experience higher temperatures, nor does it demand that warming increase
steadily each year, but rather that Earth's overall atmospheric, land, and sea
temperatures increase over time.
Climate is defined as the average weather of a region over time. Temperature,
rainfall, storms, and other weather-related or environmental conditions are short-term
facets of longer-term climate conditions. There is an increasing consensus of data and
expert opinion that climate change driven by global warming is observable,
measurable, and--without prompt mitigation (efforts to reduce) is predicted to pose
increasing perils to life on Earth. The 2007 Assessment Report of the United Nations'
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that global warming was
"unequivocal" and that it is more than 90 percent likely that most of the global
warming observed since the mid-twentieth century is caused by anthropogenic
releases of greenhouse gases.
Light from the Sun passes through the atmosphere and warms Earth's surface.
atmosphere by greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO
), water vapor,
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). This atmospheric warming is called the greenhouse
effect and is both natural and essential for life on Earth. Without the greenhouse
effect, Earth's average global temperature would be too cold to support most forms of
animal and plant life. However, an overabundance of greenhouse gases can increase
the greenhouse effect and force abnormal global warming.
Carbon dioxide--a by-product of burning fossil fuels and modern forests--is the
most abundant greenhouse gas. Depending on the specific measurements, in the early
twenty-first century, there is at least 30 to 40 percent more CO
in the atmosphere
In some ways, adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere is like throwing
another blanket on Earth; the consequent rise in global temperature is known as
global warming. Despite the fact that climate is a complex system and climate models
are difficult to construct, scientists must use climate models to predict the impacts of
various concentrations of greenhouse gases on global warming, and in turn, on global
climate. Some models show average global temperature increasing as much as 9
degrees Fahrenheit (5 degrees Celsius) by 2100. Because ocean water absorbs more
heat than land, the Southern Hemisphere (which has more water) will warm less than
the Northern Hemisphere; hence, any temperature increase will not be uniform.
Atmospheric circulation patterns will bring the greatest warming, as much as 14 to 18
degrees Fahrenheit (8 to 10 degrees Celsius), to Earth's poles.
Since the IPCC's 2007 report, new scientific findings have tended to worsen
the climate change picture. In early 2009, scientists at two major gatherings--one at
the University of Copenhagen, the other at the annual meeting of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science--presented evidence that climate change
was occurring more quickly than the IPCC had conservatively forecasted in 2007. In
addition, carbon dioxide increased faster than the IPCC's most pessimistic forecasts.
Climate change skeptics often cite Berkley professor of physics Richard A.
Muller's (1944-) past criticisms of the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate
change. In 2010, Muller founded the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Study to
analyze climate data. In 2012, Muller recanted his skepticism over anthropogenic
climate change, titling his op-ed in the New York Times "The Conversion of a
Climate-Change Skeptic." Muller states that his work at Berkeley Earth provides the
most convincing evidence to date that human activity over the last 250 years has
altered Earth's climate. Muller notes that his findings go even further than the 2007
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report, which only
attributed temperature rises since the mid-twentieth century as "very likely" due to
According to the IPPC and the vast majority of global leaders and climate
health, and global economy of nations for generations. Hundreds of millions of
people and scores of societies, economies, and cultures are already threatened by
rising sea levels, disrupted food production, extreme weather, and emergent diseases.
While such irreversible losses as species extinctions and lost lives cannot be
calculated in monetary terms, the most conservative estimates of the costs of climate
change over the next century range in the trillions of dollars. Moreover, the most
severe effects of climate change are predicted to most strongly impact the world's
poorest and most vulnerable human populations.
What is Green Chemistry?
the business and regulatory communities as a natural evolution of pollution
prevention initiatives. In our efforts to improve crop protection, commercial products,
and medicines, we also caused unintended harm to our planet and humans. By the
mid-20th century, some of the long-term negative effects of these advancements
could not be ignored. Pollution choked many of the world's waterways and acid rain
deteriorated forest health. There were measurable holes in the earth's ozone. Some
chemicals in common use were suspected of causing or directly linked to human
cancer and other adverse human and environmental health outcomes. Many
governments began to regulate the generation and disposal of industrial wastes and
emissions. The United States formed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in
1970, which was charged with protecting human and environmental health through
setting and enforcing environmental regulations. Green chemistry takes the EPA's
mandate a step further and creates a new reality for chemistry and engineering by
asking chemists and engineers to design chemicals, chemical processes and
commercial products in a way that, at the very least, avoids the creation of toxics and
waste. Green Chemistry is not politics. Green Chemistry is not a public relations
ploy. Green chemistry is not a pipe dream. We are able to develop chemical
processes and earth-friendly products that will prevent pollution in the first place.
Through the practice of green chemistry, we can create alternatives to hazardous
substances we use as our source materials. We can design chemical processes that
reduce waste and reduce demand on diminishing resources. We can employ processes
that use smaller amounts of energy. We can do all of this and still maintain economic
growth and opportunities while providing affordable products and services to a
growing world population. This is a field open for innovation, new ideas, and
revolutionary progress. This is the future of chemistry. This is green chemistry. To
learn more, read the definition of green chemistry. Green Chemistry Definition
Sustainable and green chemistry in very simple terms is just a different way of
thinking about how chemistry and chemical engineering can be done. Over the years
different principles have been proposed that can be used when thinking about the
design, development and implementation of chemical products and processes. These
principles enable scientists and engineers to protect and benefit the economy, people
and the planet by finding creative and innovative ways to reduce waste, conserve
energy, and discover replacements for hazardous substances. It’s important to note
that the scope of these of green chemistry and engineering principles go beyond
concerns over hazards from chemical toxicity and include energy conservation, waste
reduction, and life cycle considerations such as the use of more sustainable or
renewable feed stocks and designing for end of life or the final disposition of the
product. Green chemistry can also be defined through the use of metrics. While a
unified set of metrics has not been established, many ways to quantify greener
processes and products have been proposed. These metrics include ones for mass,
energy, hazardous substance reduction or elimination, and life cycle environmental
impacts. Learn more about the principles of green chemistry and engineering. Green
chemistry. What is Green Chemistry?
Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and
chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that
minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances.
focuses on technological approaches to preventing pollution and reducing
consumption of nonrenewable resources.
Green chemistry overlaps with all subdisciplines of chemistry but with a
in industrial applications. To a lesser extent, the principles of green chemistry also
affect laboratory practices. The overarching goals of green chemistry—namely, more
resource-efficient and inherently safer design of molecules, materials, products, and
processes—can be pursued in a wide range of contexts.
Sustainable development is a process for meeting human development goals
while sustaining the ability of natural systems to continue to provide the natural
resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived most strongly from
the 1987 Brund land Report, it is rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest
management and twentieth century environmental concerns. As the concept
developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social
development and environmental protection. Sustainable development is the
organizing principle for sustaining finite resources necessary to provide for the needs
of future generations of life on the planet. It is a process that envisions a desirable
future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use continue
to meet human needs without undermining the "integrity, stability and beauty" of
natural biotic systems. What is Sustainable Development There are many definitions
of sustainable development, including this landmark one which first appeared in
1987:"Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
What Is Sustainable Development
There are many different origins and definitions of the term sustainable
development but in 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development’s
report called the Brund land Report is by far the best and is now one of the most
widely recognized definitions:
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It
contains within it two key concepts: the concept of ‘needs’, in particular the essential
needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea
of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the
environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.”
To Sum Up What Is Sustainable Development
In other words, when people make decisions about how to use the Earth’s
resources such as forests , water, minerals, gems, wildlife, etc., they must take into
account not only how much of these resources they are using, what processes they
used to get these resources., and who has access to these resources. Are enough
resources going to be left for your grandchildren to use and will the environment be
left as you know it today?
The occurred changes in Kazakhstan led the design and implementation of a
Today the emphasis is on the creation of favorable conditions for the formation of a
highly competitive person with an ethical attitude to the world, a creative mindset,
developed ideological culture, while preserving its uniqueness, originality, talent in
various fields of science and art.
The collection of texts in the Kazakh, Russian and English languages for the
formation of skills in types of speech activity of students of secondary education level
prepares students to learn subjects in three languages on the basis of the system of
students' language and speech competence in writing, reading, listening and speaking
on topics that are closest to real-life situations and are presented in the curricula of
primary, basic secondary and general secondary education. The most important
characteristic of the communicative-oriented language training is to use the text as
the main didactic units.
Working with text enables us to develop students' skills subject following: read
and understand the text to extract from it the information necessary to analyze the
text in terms of its content, structure, style accessories, retell and edit text, create your
own based on the text of the speech utterance.
Collection of texts prepared in accordance with the level of language
acquisition, according to the European system of language proficiency levels
(CEFR). The texts correspond to the curriculum of primary, secondary and high
schools, contribute to further successful study of science and math cycle in English.
The collection is intended for teachers of language subjects and aims to address
a number of speech and communication skills:
- Development of students' skills and phonemic hearing foreign speech
perception in real-life situations;
- Development of written communication skills in an international information
- Actualization of intellectual and creative potential of the individual student,
his educational activity;
- The development of skills in self-assessment of students work performed for
the formation of a further stimulus to the study of languages;
- The development of critical thinking of students through a variety of job
types. Work with the text is considered to be a necessary stage of a modern lesson. Of
great importance are the following characteristics of texts: the content of texts, their
emotional language, accordance of moral, ethic and aesthetic content to
psychological peculiarities of schoolchildren.. The work with texts at the lessons is
connected with the development of pupils’ emotional and aesthetic perception, love
for their native language, nature, people and country.
So, the task of a teacher is to organize the process of teaching accentuating it
not only on perception and memory of pupils but basically on thinking. A teacher,
who can choose good methods of presentation of material for study, helps pupils to
reach a maximal possible level of language mastery.
Слободчиков А.А. – Москва. – Просвещение. –
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 179
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 103
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 106
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 109
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 112
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 115
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 175
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 166
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 66
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 144
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 180
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 3
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 74
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 167
БАО-ПРЕСС. – Москва. – 1999. – стр. 173
Chemistry of Life McDougal Littell Biology Copyright © McDougal
Chemistry Michael Blaber1996
Chemistry Kelly Robson
Clackamas Community College ©1998, 2002 Clackamas Community
Content ©2008. All Rights Reserved. Date last modified: June 18, 2008.
Created with SoftChalk LessonBuilder
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Miessler, L. M., Tar, D. A., (1991) "Inorganic Chemistry" 2
Clayden, J., Warren, S., et al. (2000) "Organic Chemistry" Oxford
Meyers, R. (2003) "The Basics of Chemistry" Greenwood Press
Translated as: Lux, Hermann: “Acids” and “bases” in a fused salt bath: the
www.pearsonlongman.com/vocationalenglish English for Information
www.pearsonlongman.com/vocationalenglish English for Information
Pre-Intermediate Student’s Book Life page 32
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ACM, Vol. 49, No. 3, March 2006, pp. 33-35
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Volkenshtein M.V., Dogonadze R.R., Madumarov A.K., Urushadze Z.D.
(Moscow), 6, 1972, pp. 431–439 (In Russian, English summary. Available
translations in Italian, Spanish, English, French)
Rodney M. J. Cotterill (2002). Biophysics : An Introduction. Wiley. ISBN
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84419-3.
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Biology (4th ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-30942-2.
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Huesemann, M.H., and J.A. Huesemann (2011). Technofix: Why
Technology Won’t Save Us or the Environment, New Society Publishers, ISBN
The Garden of Our Neglect: How Humans Shape the Evolution of Other
Sutherland W. et al. (2015). What Works in Conservation, Open Book
Publishers, ISBN 9781783741571.
Human activities that harm the Environment | Energy Physics
a ND cardiac/heart_beat.shtml
P a g e www.ncerthelp.com
^ "The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology: James F. Crow".
"The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology:Richard Lewontin".
"The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology: Daniel Hartl".
"Feldman lab alumni & collaborators".
"The Academic Genealogy of Evolutionary Biology: Marcus Feldman".
Otto SP (2009). "The evolutionary enigma of sex". American Naturalist
Desmond, Adrian J. (1989). The politics of evolution: morphology,
Desmond, Adrian J.; Moore, James William (1991). Darwin. London:
Sean B. Carroll, The Origins of Form. Natural History.
Scott F. Gilbert, The Morphogenesis of Evolutionary Developmental
Tardigrades (water bears) as evo-devo models, a short video from NPR's
Main article: History of evolutionary thought
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