4-ші қорытынды: Стандартты электродтық потенциалдар қатарының көмегімен реакция теңдеулерін теңестіруге болады . Түсініктемелер
Анықтамалық кестелерден қажетті
жартылай реакция теңдеулеріне
сай потенциалдар мәндерін тауып
мәндеріне сай өздігінен жүретін
жартылай реакция теңдеулерін
1 | I
1 | H
O = H
Өз бетімен жүретін реакцияның
толық теңдеуін құрамыз және оған
сай электр қозғаушы күштің мәнін
O = H
+ 2HI Е
БҚМУ Хабаршы №1-2016ж.
Әдебиеттер: 1. Шрайвер Дж., Эткинс Дж. Неорганическая химия. В 2-х томах. – М.: Мир, 2013. – Т.1. – 679 с., Т.2. – 486 с. 2. Штраус С. Решебник к учебнику «Неорганическая химия» Д.Шрайвера, П.Эткинса. – М.: Мир, 2004. – 271 с. 3. Суворов А.В., Никольский А.Б. Общая и неорганическая химия. В 2-х томах. – М.: Юрайт, 2016. Т.1. – 292 с., Т.2. – 315 с. 4. Дей К., Селбин Д. Теоретическая неорганическая химия. – М.: Химия, 1976. – 347 с. 5. Шаталов А.Я. Введение в электрохимическую термодинамику. – М.: Высш. шк., 1984. – 215 с. 6. Агасян П.К., Николаева Е.Р. Основы электрохимических методов анализа (потенциометрический метод). – М.: Изд-во Моск. ун-та, 1986. – 196 с. 7. Соглашения, касающиеся знаков разностей электрических потенциалов, электродвижущих сил и электродных потенциалов (Стокгольм, 1953). – Номенклатурные правила ИЮПАК по химии. – М.: ВИНИТИ, 1979. – 333 с. 8. Латимер В. Окислительные состояние элементов и их потенциалы в водных растворах. – М.: Издатинлит, 1954. – 400 с. 9. Щульц М.М., Писаревский А.М., Полозова И.П. Окислительный потенциал. Теория и практика. – Л.: Наука, 1984. – 160 с. 10. Бахметьева Л.М., Пушкин Д.В., Сережкина Л.Б. Окислительно- восстановительные реакции. – Самара: Изд-во «Универс-групп», 2005. – 59 с. 11. Морозов И.В., Болталин А.И., Карпова Е.В. Окислительно- восстановительные процессы. – М.: Издательство Московского университета, 2003. – 79 с. 12. Бекишев К. Окислительно-восстановительные реакции. – Алматы: Қазақ университеті, 2004. – 108 с. Бекишев К., Байрысова А.Е. Ряд стандартных электродных потенциалов и практические выводы, вытекающие из него. В статье обсуждается принципы измерения стандартных электродных потенциалов и электродвижущих сил гальванических элементов и составления таблиц на их основе, характеризующих сравнительные окислительно- восстановительные свойства простых веществ и химических соединений, а также основные практические выводы и следствия, вытекающие из них. Статья носит методический характер и может быть использована при обучении химии. Ключевые слова: Электродный потенциал, гальванический элемент, электродвижущая сила гальванического элемента, водородный электрод, полуреакции, уравнение Нернста, стандартные условия, ряд стандартных электродных потенциалов. Bekishev K., Bairyssova A.E. A string of standard electrode potentials and the resulting practical conclusions The article discusses the principles of measuring standard electrode potentials and electromotive forces of galvanic cells and the development of tables based on them describing the comparative redox properties of elements and chemical compounds, as well as the main practical findings and implications of them. The article is carry methodological character and can be used in teaching chemistry. Keywords: Electrode potential, galvanic cell, electromotive force of a galvanic cell, hydrogen electrode, the half-reaction, Nernst equation, standard terms, a string of standard electrode potentials. ***
БҚМУ Хабаршы №1-2016ж.
Kulmagambetova S. – candidate of pedagogical sciences, M.Utemissov WKSU Е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Thomas W. – PhD, professor, University of Passau (Passau, Germany) Е-mail: Thomas.Wuensch@Uni-Passau.De Imanalina G. – master student of M.Utemissov WKSU Е-mail: email@example.com TYPES OF PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES Abstract. In this article are considered topical issues of pedagogical technologies and defined the concepts "technology", "pedagogical technology". Also there are considered pedagogical technologies of training to help students in higher educational system with subject understanding of problematical character of shown tasks; to teach to distinguish and analyze problem situations; to find ways, approaches, ways on permission of problem situations for students. It is possible to find answers in article to such questions as: what to teach? for what to teach? how to teach productively? Keywords: pedagogics, technology of training, pedagogical technology, education, productivity, higher educational system, creation, activity, group of students.
As educators know, teaching is a complicated practice that requires an interweaving
of many kinds of specialized knowledge. In this way, teaching is an example of an ill-
structured discipline, requiring teachers to apply complex knowledge structures across
different cases and contexts. Teachers practice their craft in highly complex, dynamic
classroom contexts that require them constantly to shift and evolve their understanding.
Thus, effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated
knowledge from different domains, including knowledge of student thinking and learning,
knowledge of subject matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.
On the basis of the analysis of literature it is necessary to specify that and
widespread the next technological ways of training are the most known :
1. Traditional training:
Traditional training, though isn't among modern ways, is widely used in practice of
training. In it is possible to allocate a certain accurate procedure: updating of former
knowledge (poll), statement of a new material, fixing, homework. Such creation of
educational process completely corresponds to logic of assimilation of knowledge and
fields good results if the purpose of training is assimilation of the actual information and
formation of practical abilities;
2. The differentiated training:
Differentiation of training can be carried out on the different signs, the most
widespread, training differentiation on training standard level (level of knowledge) or on
level of students educational opportunities (more difficult option). The technology of level
differentiation assumes preliminary division of group of students on micro groups with
different level of knowledge and exarticulation in a training material of several (usually
three) types of programs: standard, enriched and advanced. Process of training is under
construction in traditional sequence: presentation of a new material, fixing, repetition,
control. However, during the fixing, repetition and control students from different groups
carry out tasks of different level of complexity and therefore acquire a training material at
БҚМУ Хабаршы №1-2016ж.
3. Individual training;
4. Collective training;
5. Developing training;
6. Training on the basis of model of full assimilation of knowledge;
7. The concentrated training and etc.
Types of the general pedagogical technologies
According to the leading concept the content of education is considered now as a
complex of elements of social experience . Social experience is understood as set of
activity, each of which assumes existence of the purpose, means, ways and result.
Making a start from the types of educational process offered by M.A. Galanova:
dogmatic, explanatory, productive, we add according to levels of assimilation of the content
of education suggestive, personal and explanatory, called reproductive, break into formal
and intrinsic subtypes .
Dogmatic training became the first type which had a wide circulation: many people
owning the diploma, able to consider, write were required, but not to think. Any deviation
from dogmas was immediately stopped and guaranteed inability of person was the most
cardinal means of fight against heresy is critical to belong to learned, to analyze and
estimate facts. Units from ten thousand made the way through thickness of cramming to
own opinion to truth.
In process of development of means of production, complication of labor process
and tasks solved by the worker execution of sample actions and skillful activity, application
of labor receptions in various situations was not required. It is easy to see result of
reproductive type of educational process in this characteristic.
The reproductive training aimed at the fastest development by the individual of
available experience, doesn't demand explanations, these are our traditions. Training
programs, textbooks, habitual style of interaction with student, settled forms of education
and first of all, class period organization of offices and all educational building – all these
are most adapted today for requirements of this type of educational process .
The reproduction prepared the competent worker, but performer not capable to
create a new. New social requirement was expressed in the sixties our century by the Russia
philosopher said that nowadays modern students know much more than Socrat, but whether
they think as he? Promotion of problem training, later – active methods of training became
the answer to the social order. Need of productive type to prove isn't present need: all have
on lips a creativity development, activization of informative activity. It is necessary to
recognize soberly only that the surroundings of higher education institution doesn't change
since time of the founder of didactics. Occupation, the clumsiest from positions of creative
activity, admits quality of "the main organizational form of education". This fact can't be
considered as a lack of student teaching: it follows, according to one more regularity of
education that arrow of social requirement yet doesn't indicate graduate creator and it can't
be mass productive type.
And nevertheless, productive type is a requirement of time, a logical step of
development of student teaching. Its characteristic features are independent, instead of the
informative activity organized by teacher and creative thinking as a key element of result of
student’s education. It is clear why all modern recommendations about improvement of
process of training agree on developing training and use of active methods of training.
Nowadays educated person has to be able to create own experience.
Type of teaching and educational process, urged to respond to such social order –
personal. The name says not that public shape (mask) of the person here is formed, it was in
any type of education, and that formation of knowledge, ways of activity, thinking is used
as means of education of personality, its "self-growing" in close contact, cooperating with
others. Product of this type — people not with the imposed moral person, and the identity
which has built in creative social interaction with others.
БҚМУ Хабаршы №1-2016ж.
Result of formal and reproductive type – knowledge, respectively control tasks are
tests, questions directed on reproduction, storing, control of actions.
The end of result of intrinsic and reproductive level are abilities, therefore,
supervising procedure will be connected with the solution of tasks with deviations from
standard algorithm, with independent designing of answers.
Productive type. Result – creative thinking. Control tasks contain tasks – educational
Personal type. Result – personality. Participation in imitating (business) games
allows to see manifestation of personal qualities of student, i.e. control assumes an out
gaming of personal situations.
The choice of technology of training depends on the planned direction of a
development of education. The modern paradigm of education is connected with
introduction in school practice personal the focused training. Therefore the focused
technologies become the most significant personal. They assume:
1. Updating of the content of education (if we plan to use a certain technology in the
course of training, we seek to create, select, transform already available contents education
so that it logically and "technologically" laid down in planned process);2. Formation at
students of requirement for receiving the fundamental scientific and practical-focused
3. Development of qualities of the identity of students (including intellectual)
allowing them to live in existing welfare conditions.
On orientation to personal structures pedagogical technologies can be shared on:
• Technologies of formation of the sphere of the esthetic and moral relations;
• Technologies of formation of self-operating mechanisms of the personality;
Any personal focused technology is under construction on a basis and taking into
account transfer being trained in a subject condition in the course of training and creation
subject - subject relations in the academic group. These relations develop from:
• communication organizations;
• organizations of group activity of students;
• uses (receptions) special technician;
• organizations of an assessment and self-assessment of students;
• creations of successful situation;
• creations of confidential psychological climate on occupation.
The most difficult at introduction of focused technologies, besides actually
technological moments, obviously relation change "Teacher - student" will be personal.
These relations are key in considered technologies, expressing their main idea and strategic
line. In case when teacher simply uses a set technician (receptions) and relations remain at
former, authoritative level, it’s difficult to speak about realization personal to focused
technology. At the same time, researches showed that more than 40% of teachers in
professional activity are focused on satisfaction of requirement for domination and
suppression that is on authoritative style.
Expert teachers develop author's technologies which combine elements of the
approved technologies in different options. As a rule, all of them are focused on
implementation of contents and achievement of purpose of different level and diversified
There can be built different technologies on the basis of one theory of training. For
example, in higher education establishments are used when training future highly qualified
specialists set of technologies on training. But together with it, it is necessary to consider
specifics of specialty always. We agree that the theory of problem training is the basis for
БҚМУ Хабаршы №1-2016ж.
technologies which develop thinkful and creative abilities, informative activity, interest,
independence of personality, but at the same time construction of one theory, concept of
several technologies of training isn't testimony of their identity. They will always differ in
quantitative and qualitative parameters. In this regard it is important to have complete
system of means of description of pedagogical technologies, considering that each of them
contains conceptual, substantial and procedural aspects.
The research principle in pedagogic assumes independent research activity of
students in the course of training, modeling or repetition of real scientific research process
and of discovery. Ideas of independent acquisition of knowledge being trained sounded in
antique pedagogic and Renaissance pedagogic. In modern pedagogic introduction in
educational process research and searching models are connected, first of all, with John
Dewey. He planned the main stages of thinking as solutions of problems. He formulated
idea of training support on a first-hand experience (own experience of intelligence and
experience of other people, including the past) and interest of students. Dewey put forward
and realized in practice idea "School of making" at which the educational situation begins
with identification and ordering of the hidden and obvious repertoire of students’
knowledge which follows their systematic dedication in new ways with a studied subject.
Let's remind that searching is defined as "information process of extraction of object
of a big data file". Research is "process and result of the scientific activity directed on
obtaining socially significant new data". In foreign pedagogics there is very conditional
division of searching and research technologies but as both types of technologies are based
on productive activity of students during the solution of problems and independent
scientific or practical searching, we won't divide them.
The main characteristics of research training in comparison to the traditional are
defined by change of a position being trained in educational process, its initiative, subject
character from which, specific conditions of searching educational activity in turn follow.
The combination of research nature of training to a support on own experience of
students puts teachers before special difficulties. Experience and knowledge of students
quite often seems to them too limited to serve as a basic point at statement of problems of
educational research. However the requirement of a support of experience too significantly
that it could be neglected for the sake of in itself "the maintenance of a subject".
One of characteristic tendencies of development in line with research training –
studying of the problems connected with vital needs and interests of students. At a choice
of problems it is necessary to consider previous preparation and experience of students,
existence of opportunities at them to investigate a problem. Problems have to arise naturally
from experience and students’ needs.
The intrinsic characteristic of the training based on searching approach, the
reflection of students which goes in three directions are: the thinking process, arising
emotions and that gives such training for development of the personality are comprehended
and analyzed. The reflection usually occurs in the course of the analysis of the classes given
Process of searching and research training is directed not only on acquisition of
knowledge. During that students are formed general educational competence:
• knowledge searching;
• training in the main cogitative actions and operations – to the analysis, synthesis,
• formation of reflexive thinking culture;
• formation of a choice activity skills and decision-making;
• training in discussion procedures, formation of debatable culture;
• emotional and personal development in the course of educational activity;
• emotional and intellectual reflection of a course of the training including imitating
and role modeling.
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This approach is embodied in two options:
1. Searching approach of practical, informative and applied orientation within which
educational process is under construction as searching of new applied, practical data (new
tool knowledge of ways of activity).
2. Searching approach of epistemic-logical orientation within which educational
process is under construction as searching of the new theoretical knowledge, new
informative reference points.
In practice of education this approach is realized in actually research training
organized on the basis of use of the corresponding algorithms and models, in problem-
oriented training, a method of projects and other technologies.
Searching and research training relies on features of functioning of thinking of the
person. Process of receiving knowledge is constructed so that to facilitate to the person
process of its judgment, storing and practical use. It found the reflection in the
psychological principles of research training formulated in the 60th years by known
psychologist J. Brunner:
1. In the maintenance of a subject it is necessary to allocate leading, rod concepts.
In each subject of such concepts has to be a little, no more than five-seven. Their
allocation helps students to structure all received knowledge, uniting them round several
"basic" concepts, building own system of knowledge on this basis.
2. In the course of training all facts and private concepts need to be connected with
the allocated rod concepts.
Thereby the teacher helps students to form own system of knowledge. At the
beginning the teacher himself carries out communication of private concepts with basic,
gradually training students independently to carry out this process. But even then, when
students are able to do it, the teacher periodically has to address to them, asking questions
or asking to carry out communication of a studied material with basic concepts.
3. It is expedient to apply "helicoids" studying of the main concepts.
At different grade levels students again and again master not only a training material,
but also basic concepts at more and more difficult level.
4. In the course of training it is necessary not only to impart knowledge being
trained, but also to train them in the main ways of informative activity.
The main ways of informative activity find now the expression in the all-educational
competence which have been listed above. Realization of this principle provides
independence of students in the course of training and opportunity for them to study during
their all life.
5. It is necessary to put students in a position of the researcher, the pioneer.
About importance of realization of this principle it was told above much.
What concrete algorithm of independent search of knowledge and, respectively,
creation of occupation in research training? For search and research training the sequence
of the generalized stages of educational process is characteristic:
1. Problem statement, search of its formulation from the various points of view;
2. Search of the facts for the best understanding of a problem, its specification,
search of ways and opportunities of its decision;
3. The broadest search of new knowledge, information, practical examples,
promotion of ideas which will help to solve the put problem; the assessment of information,
knowledge, examples and ideas is postponed until that time while students won't formulate
them most fully;
4. Search of the decision by which found information is selected, the acquired
knowledge is analyzed, the stated ideas are exposed to the analysis and an assessment; for
an embodiment best of them get out;
5. Synthesis of selected information, the formulation of a way of a solution, search of
recognition of the found decision by people around.
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The given stages of educational activity clearly shows the main differences of search
training from the traditional. First, the knowledge isn't given to students in finished form, it
is provided to them in the form of a problem which they have to solve independently. The
knowledge becomes not the training purpose, and a problem cure. Students understand need
for themselves in new knowledge (without it not to solve put problems) that considerably
increases their motivation and activity. Secondly, activity and independence of students on
occupation is much higher. Students break into groups in which specify a problem, define,
what knowledge and information sources are necessary for them, work with these sources,
generalize the received option of a solution. Certainly, the teacher doesn't remain the silent
observer, but it assists groups only when she is necessary.
Activity of the teacher on occupation depends on complexity of a studied subject and
on a group level of development. For the last decades many foreign teachers adhere to idea
of three levels of research training. At the first level the teacher puts a problem and itself
plans a method of its decision. The being trained should carry out the decision, its search
independently. At the second level the teacher only puts a problem, but the student looks
for a method of its decision independently (group, collective search here is possible). At the
highest, third level problem statement, it is equal as search of a method and development of
the decision, are carried out being trained independently, the teacher only outlines the
sphere in which the being trained have to isolate a problem.
At problem statement the teacher estimates also abilities and possibilities of hotel
students, choosing for them degree of complexity of a task. Allocate some levels of
complexity of tasks or the educational purposes which unite in taxonomy (taxonomy –
hierarchical sequence). One of the first taxonomy of the educational purposes was
developed in the 50th years of the XX century by known American teacher B. Blum. It is
obvious that if the student can succeed only the first level, his knowledge and all-
educational skills will be low. Achievement of more and more high levels speaks about
higher level of successes in study and the general development of students.
Taxonomy of the educational purposes (according to B. Blum):
1. Knowledge – storing and reproduction of the studied material from the concrete
facts to theories. At this level of complexity the student is able to learn, remember and
repeat the learned.
2. Understanding – ability to interpret, explain or transfer a material from one form
to another (from verbal in mathematical or graphic and vice versa), the assumption of a
further course of an event or the phenomenon, a prediction of consequences, results.
3. Application – ability to use a material in specific conditions or new situations.
Application of rules, methods, concepts, laws, the principles, theories in new theoretical or
concrete practical situations.
4. The analysis – ability to break a material into components so that its structure
clearly acted. Exarticulation of parts whole, identification of interrelations between them,
understanding of the principles of the organization of the whole. Understanding not only
the maintenance of a material, but also its internal structure is required.
5. Synthesis – ability to combine elements to receive whole, possessing novelty. The
plan of action, schemes, set of the generalized communications, connection of knowledge
from various areas to solve a problem or to develop the plan of its decision can be an
6. Assessment – ability to estimate value of this or that material (scientific data, a
research material, the literary work) for a specific goal, to estimate logic of creation of a
material, compliance of conclusions to available data, the importance of this or that product
of activity. Judgments have to be based on accurate criteria – internal (structural, logical) or
external (compliance of the planned purpose). Criteria either are defined being trained, or
are set to it from the outside.
In search and research training concrete demands are made to activity of the teacher
who has to:
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• To induce students to formulate ideas available for them and representations, to
state them in an explicit form.
• To push together students with the phenomena which enter into a contradiction
with available representations.
• To induce students to put forward alternative explanations, assumptions, guesses.
• To give the chance being trained to investigate the assumptions, for example, by
carrying out experience or discussion in small groups.
• To give the chance being trained to apply new representations to a wide range of
the phenomena, situations in order that they understood and estimated their applied value.
On the basis of the general sequence of steps in search training concrete algorithms
of creation of class periods are developed. Three models of occupation given below are
based on various level of complexity of tasks. The first of them is calculated on level of
knowledge and the understanding, the second includes also application level, the third
includes all six levels from B. Blum's taxonomy.
Depending on character of the environment (or conditions) training all known
technological ways of training can be divided into three groups:
1. Technological ways which can be used within traditional hour system (the
problem training, developing training, game and others);
2. Technological ways which demand organizational reconstruction of higher
education institution work (the concentrated training, a collective way of training and
3. Technological ways which demand change of the content of education ("dialogue
of cultures", probabilistic education and others).
Complexity, versatility of pedagogical activity is a factor that opens a scope for
many pedagogical technologies. Nowadays dynamics of technologies constantly grows.
The wide range, diversity of pedagogical technologies causes the need of their classification
where pedagogical technologies are grouped in various system and significant signs .
G.K. Selevko , considering pedagogical technology and as the science
investigating the most rational ways of training, and as system of ways, principles and
regulatives, applied in training, and as real process of training, generalizing various
classification approaches, gives the following classification of pedagogical technologies:
1. On application level:
• an all-pedagogical – it concern general principles of educational processes;
• subjective – they are intended for improvement of teaching of separate subjects;
• local and modular – they provide partial changes of the pedagogical phenomena;
2. On personal orientation:
• informative: it is a formation of knowledge, abilities, skills;
• operational: it is a formation of ways of intellectual actions;
• emotionally-artistic and emotional-moral: that is a formation of the sphere of
esthetic and moral relations;
• technologies of self-development is a formation of self-administrative mechanisms
of the personality;
• heuristic: it is a development of creative abilities;
• applied technologies: it means formation of effective and practical sphere.
3. On organization and management of cognitive activity:
• structural and logical technologies of training. It means stage-by-stage formulations
of didactic tasks, a choice of way of their decision, diagnostics and an assessment of the
• integration technologies: they are didactic systems which are provides an
integration of the multisubjective knowledge and abilities, different types of activity at the
level of the integrated courses, educational subjects, educational problems and other forms
of organization of training;
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• game technologies - game form of interaction of the teacher and students which
promotes formation of abilities to solve problems on the basis of a competent choice of
alternative options through realization of a certain subject. In educational process are used
business, role, team, "teacher - student" and etc. kinds of game technologies;
4. On character of the contents and structure: training and bringing up, secular and
religious, general education and professionally focused, humanitarian and technocratic,
various branch, private subjective, and also monotechnologies, complex (polytechnologies)
and getting technologies.
5. In organizational forms: group and alternative, academic and club, individual and
collective ways of the training, the differentiated training.
6. On a prevailing (dominating) method: dogmatic, reproductive, explanatory and
illustrative, the programmed training, the problem training, the developing training, self-
developing training, dialogical, communicative, game, creative information (computer) and
7. On category of the student: mass (traditional academic technology calculated on
the average student, technologies of the advanced level (profound studying of the subjects,
vocational education and others), technologies of compensating training (pedagogical
correction, support, alignment, etc.), victimological technologies (surdo-, ortho-, tiflo-, and
8. In the direction of modernization of existing traditional system: on the basis of a
humanization and democratization of pedagogical relations, on the basis of activization and
an intensification of students activity, on the basis of efficiency of the organization and
management of training process, on the basis of methodical improvement and didactic
reconstruction of the training material, alternative, complete technologies of authors’
pedagogic methods . Literature: 1. Pedagogical technologies: Methodical recommendations / Editor T.A. Babakova. – Petrozavodsk: PetrSU publ. house, 2007. – 95 p. 2. Dautova O.B., Krylova O.N. Modern pedagogical technologies in profile training. Educational methodical aid for teachers / edition A.P. Tryapitsyna. – StPb.: CARO, 2006. – 176 p. 3. Galanova M.A. Pedagogical technologies: educational methodical aid. – Ufa: Bashkirian state pedagogical university publishing, 2008. – 103 p. 4. Timchenko I.N. Introduction of pedagogical practicum: educational methodical aid for students of higher pedagogical educational establishments. – Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk institute of professional development and retraining of educators publishing, 2004. – 184 p. 5. Modern technologies of training / editor G.V. Borissova. – StPb. 2002. – 194 p. 6. Pedagogical technologies: educational aid for students of pedagogical specialities – general edition V.S. Kukushina. – M.: PCC “MarT”; Rostov on Don: “MarT” publ., 2006. – 336 p. 7. Selevko G.K. Traditional pedagogical technology and it’s humanity modernization. – M.: Scientific research institute of school technologies, 2005. – 144 p. 8. New pedagogical and informative technologies ay system of education: Educational aid for students of pedagogical universities and system of professional development of pedagogical staff / Edition. E.S. Polat. – Publ: Centre “Academy”, 2002. – 272 p.
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Құлмағамбетова С.С., Томас В.В., Иманалина Г. Педагогикалық технологияларының типтері. Айтылмыш мақалада педагогикалық технологиялар және олардың классификациялары қарастырылады. Сонымен қатар, беріліп отырған тапсырманың мәселелігін пәндік тұрғыда түсініп білуге көмектесу; туындаған мәселелерді сараптап, жеңіл шешімін таба білуге; туындаған мәселелерді реттеуде студенттерге жеке мәнді болуының айлаларын қарастыра білуге уйрету мақсатындағы тапсырмалар жүйесі мен зерттеу амалдары нысанында оқу танымы ретіндегі оқыту технологиялары қарастырылады. Мақалада келеі сұрақтардың жауабын табуға болады: неге оқытуға болады? не үшін оқыту керек? қалай нәтижелі оқытуға болады? Тірек сөздер: педагогика, оқыту технологиясы, педагогикалық технология,білім беру, нәтижелілік. Кулмагамбетова С.С., Томас В.В., Иманалина Г. Типы педагогических технологий В данной статье рассматриваются актуальные вопросы педагогических технологий и их классификации, определяются понятия «технология», «педагогическая технология». Также рассматриваются педагогические технологии обучения, чтобы помочь обучающимся в предметном понимании проблемности предъявляемых задач; научить распознавать и анализировать проблемные ситуации; находить способы, подходы, пути по разрешению проблемных ситуаций для обучающихся. В статье можно найти ответы на такие вопросы, как: чему учить? зачем учить? как учить результативно? Ключевые слова: педагогика, технология обучения, педагогическая технология, образование, результативность. ***
Айтжанова Р.М. – педагогика ғылымдарының кандидаты, доцент, Е.А. Бөкетов атындағы Қарағанды мемлекеттік университеті Е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org