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«Байыс» тұқымды қойлардың физиологиялық жəне биохимиялық көрсеткіштерінің өзгерістері 

№ 

 



Көрсеткіштердің атаулары 

Сатып алған уақыты 

Бір жыл өткен соң 

Эритроциттер саны, 10



12

/л 13 9,4 

Лейкоциттер саны, 10



9

/л 12,0 


10,6 

Гемоглобин, г/л 150,0 



112,5 

Түстік көрсеткіш 0,9 



1,0 

АлАТ 119,7 



124,2 

АсАТ 120,0 



127,2 

Қант, м/моль/л 2,4 



2,7 

 

Кестеде көрсетілгендей, «Байыс» қойларын бір жыл бойы аймақтандыру кезінде оның қанының 



құрамындағы  эритроциттер  мен  лейкоциттердің  санының  жəне  гемоглобиннің  көрсеткіштерінің 

төмендігін  байқаймыз.  Алайда  өзгеріс  межесі  үш  сигма  мөлшерінен  аспай,  бұл  көрсеткіштердің 

мəнінің физиологиялық ауытқу шегінен аспайтындығын көрсетті. Айтылған ойымыздың дəйектілігін 

малдардың  қанының  түстік  көрсеткішінің  өзгеріссіз  қалуы  да  қолдайды.  Себебі  бұл  көрсеткіш 

қанның тыныс алу қабілетінің сақталғандығын, ал мұны эритроциттер мен гемоглобиннің абсолюттік 

мəнінің  төмендеуі  кезінде  байқалатындығын  ескеріп  малдардың  Қарқаралы  өңіріне  бейімделу 

потенциалының физиологиялық комфорт деңгейінде жүретіндігін пайымдауға болады. 

2 - к е с т е  



Лейкоформула көрсеткіштері 

№ 

 



Лейкоциттердің түрлері 

Сатып алған мезгілде 

Бір жыл өткен соң 

Таяқша тəріздес ядролы лейкоцит  



2,1 

2,2 


Сегмент ядролы лейкоцит  

22,9 

23,4 


Эозинофил 4,0 

4,2 



Базофил  



0,5 

0,5 


Лимфоцит  

65,0 

65,6 


Моноцит  

5,5 

4,5 


 

2-кестеде  көрсетілгендей,  зерттеулер  ақ  қой  формуласында  ерекшеліктерді  байқатты.  Атап 

айтқанда, жерсіндіру кезінде таяқша жəне сегмент тəрізді ядросы бар лейкоциттер саны төмендемей, 

керісінше, 0,9 

% көтерілді.  Демек,  Қарқаралы  аймағының  таулы-далалы  ауа  райы  ақ  қан 

түйіршіктерінің  ең жас  түрлерінің  салыстырмалы  түрде көтеріліп,  организмнің  қорғаныс  əрекетінің 

бейімделу  мерзімі  кезінде  өзгермегенін  көрсетті.  Сонымен  қатар  нəтижелер  моноциттардың 

пайыздық  санының  азайып,  организмнің  созылмалы  стресс  жағдайларға  қарсы  жауабының 

төмендегенін байқатады. Сонымен қатар лимфоциттер санының тұрақты болып қалуы жануарлардың 

клеткалық иммунитетінің өзгеріске ұшырамай, бастапқы деңгейде қызмет атқаратындығын көрсетеді. 

Тканьаралық  лейкоциттердің  де  (базофил,  эозинофил)  пайыздық  арақатынасының  өзгермеуі 

жануарлардың жергілікті экологиялық ортаға бейімделуінің комфортты жəне ешбір қайшылықтарсыз 

өтетіндігін аңғартады. 

Осы ойымызға энергия көзі қантты мал организмінің пайдалану көлемінің бейімделуге бір жыл 

бойы  жəне  бейімделу  кезінде  өзгермегендігі  де  дəлел  болуға  тиіс.  Керісінше,  малдардың  азықтық 

құрамындағы қоректік заттарды биотрансформациялау, яғни пайдалы өнімге айналдыру дəрежесінің 



Жерсіндіруге бейімделу кезінде қанның … 

Серия «Биология. Медицина. География». № 4(68)/2012 

39 

артқандығы  жайында  аралық  зат  алмасу  жүйесінің  ферменттері  АлАТ  пен  АсАТ-тың 



концентрациясының  өсуінен  байқауға  болады. «Байыс»  тұқымды  қойларды  Қарқаралы  өңірінде 

жерсіндіру  осы  малдардың  биологиялық  қабілетіне  қолайлы  жəне  бейімделу  процесінің  тиімді 

жүретіндігін көруге болады. 

Қорыта айтқанда, біздің зерттеулеріміз «Байыс» тұқымды қойлардың Қарқаралы өңірінің таулы-

далалық  климатына  бейімделу  кезінде  кейбір  селекциялық,  физиологиялық  жəне  биологиялық 

көрсеткіштердің  жағымды  бағытта  қалыптасып,  жаңа  мал  тұқымының  осы  өңірде  өсірілуіне  кең 

мүмкіндік  ашылатындығын  көрсетеді.  Осы  уақытқа  дейін  аталмыш  аймақта  жүргізілген 

селекциялық-асылдандыру  жұмыстары  терең  деңгейдегі  интерьерлік-физиологиялық  зерттеулермен 

ұштастырылмай  келгені  белгілі.  Сондықтан  бұл  зерттеулер  тек  малдарды  жерсіндіру  мəселесі  ғана 

емес, осы жаңа тұқым малын Қарқаралы өңірінде өсіру мəселелеріне де қолданбалы пайда келтіретіні 

ақиқат.  Болашақ  зерттеулерімізде  жаңа  тұқым  малы  «Байыс»  қойларының  төлдерінің  био-

физиологиялық ерекшеліктері мен азықты биотрансформациялау қабілетіне жəне олардың алынатын 

өнімдердің технологиялық қасиеттеріне əсер етуі қолға алынбақ. 

Осы  мақаладағы  зерттеулер  жерсіндірілген  малдардың  жаңа  ортаға  бейімделу  реакциясының 

жағымды  екендігін, атап айтқанда, жануарлардың тыныс алу — азықты  тотықтыру  қабілетінің,  өсу 

динамикасының қанағаттанарлығын көрсетті. 

 

 

References



 

1  Kanafin K., Bortukaev A. Increasing the productivity of sheep in Kazakhstan // Proceedings of the Institute of Physiology. 

Vol. 4. — Almaty, 1999. — Р. 59. 

2  Myrzakhanov N. Physiological technology: a new publisher // Some problems of adaptation and physiology sanokreotologii 

biosystems: different levels: biology, physiology and biotechnology. — Karaganda, 2007. — Р. 330–334. 

3  Myrzakhanov N. Features lymph farm animals: Diss... doc. biol. Science. — Almaty, 1995. — Р. 45. 

 

 

Н.М.Мырзаханов, М.Н.Мырзаханова 



Морфологические и биохимические адаптационные изменения крови  

в период акклиматизации 

Авторами охарактеризованы некоторые селекционные, физиологические и биохимические показатели 

крови  новой  породы  овец  «Байс».  Определены  содержание  эритроцитов,  лейкоцитов,  гемоглобина, 

лейкоцитарная  формула,  концентрация  сахара  и  ферментов  АлАТ  и  АсАТ  у  животных  в  момент 

акклиматизации  и  через  год  после  адаптации.  В  статье  приведены  материалы  о  положительном 

направлении акклиматизационной адаптации животных. 

 

N.M.Myrzakhanov, M.N.Myrzakhanova 



Morphological and biochemical adaptations blood during acclimatization 

This article some characterization of the selection, physiology and biochemi index of the new breed «Bays» 

by acclimation adaptation of the mountain — steppe region of the Karkaralinsk. Authors of the definition 

quantity of eritrocyte, leukocyte, hemoglobine, leukocyts formule, sugar, AcAT and AsAT ferments of the 

blood sheep before and after acclimation adaption. This article let us materials of the positive towards 

acclimation adaptation of the sheep. 



40 

Вестник Карагандинского университета 



МЕДИЦИНА 

UDC 618.2:37.06 (574) 

А.Е.Konkabaeva, Z.Т.Kystaubaeva, М.Zh.Akhmetova  

Karaganda State University named after E.A.Buketov (E-mail: meruzhan2@mail.ru) 

The abortion as a social and medical problem of present generation 

One of the most relevant, important and controversial problems of public life, politics and morality is 

abortion. The abortion and leading position in the structure of reproductive losses and the health of women of 

childbearing age is medico-social and contested issue in nowadays. Abortion as a whole remains the tradi-

tional method of regulation of reproductive behavior. Artificial abruption of life is a fundamental problem of 

human being, increasing interest in the article. This paper examines the effects that significantly impairs the 

reproductive system and serious complications for women's reproductive function after abortion, including 

maternal mortality. Showing prevention and solutions. 



Keywords: reproductive health, reproduction, reproductive age, the abortion, reproductive losses, medical, 

pregnancy, pregnant, women, sex, teenage girls. 

 

The abortion is a serious medical and social, moral and ethical issue, which is directly affecting the re-



productive health of women of reproductive age [1]. The concept of reproductive health is derived from the 

word reproduction. The biological reproduction is the reproduction of organisms of their own kind, the same 

as breeding [2]. The reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, regard-

ing the functions and processes of the reproductive system, as well as psychosocial conditions at all stages of 

life [3]. The reproductive health is closely related to the reproductive behavior. Most studies on reproductive 

behavior are associated with the problem of abortion, contraception, reproductive plans. All the researchers 

show a direct relationship between the prevalence of abortion and the state of women fertile function and the 

level of reproductive loss [1]. 

The reproductive loss is a loss, primarily related to the termination of pregnancy: an artificial abortion 

on request of the women, the presence of social or medical indications for abortion, miscarriage, ectopic 

pregnancy, abnormal pregnancy, which is reducing the viability of the fetus and newborn, perinatal and in-

fant mortality due to prenatal morbidity and congenital malformations, maternal mortality. Analysis of re-

productive loss reveals the degree of adaptability of the existing system of protection of maternal and child 

health, and the effectiveness of population policy in the area of fertility, allowing women to optimally realize 

the maternal function [3]. The motherhood is studied in line of the various sciences: history, culture, and 

medicine, and physiology, biology of behavior, sociology and psychology. Recently, an interest in the com-

plex research of motherhood has appeared [4]. Basic reproductive losses society incurs in connection with 

the adverse effects that abortion causes to subsequent process of the childbirth [3]. 

Today, the most of the people living in the developed western countries, agree that induced abortion is 

one of the most relevant, important and controversial issues of the public life, politics and morality [8]. 

Demographic policy that is in a captivity of concepts of social development in the years ahead, is not particu-

larly geared to «save» the potential of fertility, which can be supported and developed through social and 

medical technology without sacrificing the life and health of born generations [3]. Abortion as a whole re-

mains the traditional method of regulation of reproductive behavior of the family, due to socio-economic 

factors, the general level of awareness of the population, the state family planning services [6]. Finally, it 

should be noted that the artificial termination of life is a fundamental problem of a human being. 

Its existential importance for each person emerges, in particular, in that attitude to the abortion includes 

a worldview, the system of looks at the world and ourselves in the world. One of the important parts of a 



The abortion as a social and medical problem … 

Серия «Биология. Медицина. География». № 4(68)/2012 

41 

worldview is religious. Individual religiosity is a significant predictor of attitudes to abortion [7]. The dra-



matic confrontation and clash of different points of view are so polar that «they spill out onto the street, be-

come a subject of mass manifestations. Rallies and demonstrations. One of the demonstrations on the issue 

of abortion, which took place, for example, in the U.S. capital in 1992, attracted a record number of partici-

pants for Washington more than 250 thousand people. Numerous demonstrations «for» and «against» abor-

tions occur almost in all the countries of the West [8]. 

Operation of abortion remains the most common in obstetrics and gynecology [6]. Abortion or induced 

abortion continues to occupy a disproportionate place in the methods of birth control [9]. Of course, the op-

eration of abortion has serious consequences for women's reproductive function. Especially, it should be par-

ticularly noted that the decline in maternal mortality from illegal abortions occurs in the present, not only by 

reducing their numbers, but also in connection with the liberalization of the indications for abortion in the 

later period [3]. According to the WHO, the world produces 30–55 million abortions each year [6]. Every 

year in the world from 5 to 10 % of girls aged 13 to 17 years become pregnant. According to the literature, 

for the last 20 years the number of perfectly healthy women decreased from 28.3 % to 6.3 % [9]. 

Studies in recent years have shown that the various impaired fertility, which negatively affected the 

formation and development of the fetus, in 20–30 % of cases because of the abortion. With the increasing 

number of abortions the likelihood of premature birth, his death in the first week of life, stillbirth increases 

[10]. Despite the decline in the overall level of abortions their level remains high [6]. In the Republic of Ka-

zakhstan on the background of low birth every 7

th 

abortion (13.9) is primigravida [11]. 



An abortion is made on a woman's request for pregnancies up to 12 weeks, for social reasons -for preg-

nancies up to 22 weeks, and when medically and consent of a woman-regardless of gestational age [3]. The 

gentlest method of abortion in the early stages a mini-abortion is only used in 24.4 % of the total number of 

abortions, in recent years there is a tendency of reducing the share of this type of abortion. At least 15–20 % 

of the total is accounted for abortion in II trimester [6]. 

The operation of medical abortion is fraught with various complications. Complications are often di-

rectly related to the surgery itself. In the production of abortion in the first trimester the damages the circular 

muscles of the uterus occur, leading eventually to the development of the isthmic-cervical insufficiency. 

Among the reasons which are directly related to the operation of isthmic-cervical insufficiency is the mainly 

related to artificial termination of the first pregnancy. The greatest number of complications is related to 

pregnancy termination in II trimester. The complications may be related to surgical abortion technique im-

perfection [6]. There is evidence of such complications as embolism, increment placenta, retained placenta, 

sepsis, and uterine rupture. The risk and incidence of complications after medical abortion in the II trimester 

increase with gestational age. From the dominant causes of mortality are: infection, bleeding, pulmonary 

embolism. There are cases of infringement of the blood coagulation system. The side effects, associated with 

the use of prostaglandins — nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, phlebitis. The frequency of cervical laceration with 

the application of prostaglandins 30 times is higher than with the use of hypertonic solution [6]. 

Abortions can have complications, which significantly impair the reproductive system, the most com-

mon of which is the inflammation. In order to prevent it, many and varied means are used , but their lack of 

effectiveness, the possibility of unwanted side effects, organizational difficulties and implementations dictate 

expediency of the search of new preventive actions, including non-traditional [12]. 

The abortion causes rough psychological trauma [6]. Among women, who have had an abortion, there 

often occurs increased nervousness, irritability, fatigue, tearfulness, draining, weakening of sexual feelings, 

and sometimes apathy and depression. The abortion which is mentally unprocessed leads to a conscious or 

unconscious conflict and a sense of guilt accompanying by the functional and psychosomatic disorders [11]. 

Moreover, these cases are independent of the production method of abortion [6].  The role of psychogenic 

life events in the occurrence of emotional disorders is emphasized. One of the major risk factors of develop-

ing of psychosomatic disorders is anxiety- the experience of emotional discomfort associated with the expec-

tation of trouble, expectation of imminent danger. It is urgent to save the reproductive health and quality of 

life of patients in a single post-abortion [11]. 

Abortion violates ovarian function. Healthy women’s recovery, after abortion, of cyclic ovarian func-

tion is mainly (85.5 %) only in the second or third round, and finally — in the fifth cycle [6]. Due to the fact 

that after the operation an extensive wound surface is produced and the conditions for the development of 

microflora are created and barrier function of the endometrium is sharply reduced, preventive medication use 

after abortion should be as early as possible [12]. 


А.Е.Konkabaeva, Z.Т.Kystaubaeva, М.Zh.Akhmetova 

42 


Вестник Карагандинского университета 

The problem is actual in other countries too. In Denmark 22 % of women aged 20–29 have a history of 

medical abortions; half of all abortions involve nulliparous women. In the major cities of Sweden, the num-

ber of abortions per 1,000 women is 26.5–30.4; in recent years, the number of abortions has increased [6]. In 

the international community with regard to abortion, Kazakhstan is on one of the «leading» positions. Ac-

cording to official statistics from the Ministry of Health of the Republic the number of abortions per 1,000 

women of reproductive age is 5–10 times higher than rates in Western Europe, the UK and the U.S. and is 

45.1 (1996), while in Japan — 24.9; the USA — 20.1; Australia — 15.5; Canada-10.2; in the Netherlands — 

5.6 (A.A.Popov, 1990; A.G. Khomasuridze, 1983; E.Ketting, 1994) [10]. 

Over recent years, Kazakhstan has an increase of abortions among teenagers and primigravidas (1/3). 

Attention is drawn to a sufficiently high proportion of young women 4.6 %, and the European nationality 

adolescents were 3.7 times more likely than native nationality [10]. Adolescent sexual activity caused the 

revival of the non-existence of the phenomenon of «young mothers» [9]. As it is known, early sexual activity 

leads to the problem of unwanted pregnancy and its termination [11]. Unfortunately, one solution to the 

problem of teenage pregnancy is abortion [9]. 

Operation of abortion in primigravidas, is presenting a significant risk to health, especially an adverse 

effect on subsequent fertility [11]. According to official statistics, every year in the world 5 million teen 

pregnancies end with abortion. In most countries, the share of young people is more than 10 % of the total 

number of abortions. Annually in Kazakhstan approximately 150 thousand abortions are produced. Over the 

last years, there is the growth of abortions among teenagers [9]. The study of Kazakhstani scientists 

(N.A.Kayupova, H.M.Bektasheva, 1997) allow to assign a risk group for terminating unplanned pregnancy 

of students, unmarried and unemployed women. Each thirteenth woman among received an abortion, had sex 

before the age of majority. Women had sex before marriage noted — 52.3 %. Sexually active at the age of 

14–17 years 7.75 % of adolescents,18–19 years — 28, 9 %, 20–24 years — 46, 3 %, 25–29 years — 12, 0 % 

in 30 years and above in 5.1 % of women [10]. 

Multiplicity of pregnancies and their outcomes also depend on the age of women. Thus, women who 

have abortions under the age of 20, on one delivery had eight abortions (ratio 1:8). This information allows 

women up to 20 years, with more immature social status, to include in the risk group of abortion [10].The 

frequency of complications of abortion, according to some authors, varies widely, from 1.6 to 52 %. Espe-

cially, these complications are important that they affect subsequently the generative function of women [7]. 

To assess the implications of the decision about reducing the list of indications for abortion in the first 

place it is important to analyze the modern features and causes of abortion [3].Termination of pregnancy 

among a high proportion of women  is due to  set of reasons, indicating that the complex impact of various 

factors on the outcome of pregnancy. The main factor influencing the decision to terminate a pregnancy — 

53 % of unregistered marriage, socio-economic conditions (low standard of living, the uncertainty in the fu-

ture 30 %), employment, work or school (5 %), interpersonal relations (3 %) and others (9 %) [11]. 

For contingent of women making the abortion for social reasons are characterized by low sanitary and 

contraceptive literacy, long-term residence in a state of chronic stress, deprivation and exclusion, living in 

poverty and unemployment. This situation leads to a later treatment in hospital admissions for abortion [3]. 

Among the causes of reproductive illness-a miscarriage has defined value. Its frequency is 5–15 % of all 

pregnancies. Subsequent surgery is often accompanied by inflammation, the formation of adhesions, ovarian 

dysfunction, producing a secondary infertility. Therefore, prevention of spontaneous abortion is an important 

means of improving the demographic situation [13]. 

In terms of measures to enhance the formation of the contraceptive culture of the population there is 

greater need of in-depth, targeted, systematic educational, educational and humanitarian programs on the use 

of modern contraceptives among the contingent of women who currently have abortions for social reasons up 

to 22 weeks of pregnancy, with high risk of post-abortion complications [3]. Several authors propose to con-

sider abortion as a biological injury that violates neurohumoral balance and barrier function in the endo-

metrium and recommend preventive measures directed to immediate restoration of function of the neuroen-

docrine system involved in reproductive processes [12]. 

To prevent repeated abortions, another critical element of services for abortion is adequate contracep-

tive counseling. Women should be fully informed of all planned procedures, including anesthesia. Safety 

procedures and their possible immediate and delayed side effects and complications should be discussed. It is 

important to explain that the earlier termination of pregnancy (first trimester) is very safe in skilled hands. It 

should be also explained the increased risk associated with abortion in the second trimester [10]. 


The abortion as a social and medical problem … 

Серия «Биология. Медицина. География». № 4(68)/2012 

43 

The current system in the Republic of Kazakhstan with the organization of providing family planning 



services for many years has been focused only on enforcement and health agencies, as well as in all the 

countries of the CIS. The main agency in this case is female consultation, which has served as the «fight 

against abortion», which did not lead to a positive solution of the problem, the problem of family planning. It 

should be noted that one of the objectives of FP services (family planning) is to disseminate relevant infor-

mation. The FP services are not working in uptake, and directly work with those who need or may need their 

help. This help is needed for adolescent girls, young women and men [10]. The use of preventive measures 

in view of the managed and unmanaged risk is acceptable. The possibility of using the offers of the system in 

clinics and hospitals will reduce the number of complications after medical abortion [6]. 

Women, seeking for abortion, should receive counseling on contraception, in conjunction with the ser-

vices for the production of abortion, and during subsequent visits. Contraceptive counseling should include 

information about the benefits and limitations of methods available to and affordable for the client. In the 

absence of medical contraindications the use any method of contraception should be initiated immediately 

after the abortion. Counseling on contraception is especially important for women with recurrent abortion 

[10]. 


The need of reduction the number of abortions among teenage girls should be directly related to sex 

education, the formation of a responsible attitude to health and raise awareness of young people on preven-

tion of unwanted pregnancy. Sex in adolescents usually occurs spontaneously or against the will. Therefore, 

adolescents are at increased risk of STIs / HIV. Teenage girls at greater than adult women risk of information 

because of their low social status. Therefore, adolescent girls should be early explained the need for delaying 

sexual debut. This should take into account these studies that in many other countries, adolescents are 

strongly influenced by peer pressure and high and involving them in premarital sex [14]. 

Abortion procedure, produced in the first trimester of pregnancy by sufficiently trained specialist in ap-

propriate conditions, is associated with a low risk of complications. Over 10 weeks of gestation health risk of 

teenage abortion, increases with each week of pregnancy. In this case, the risk of abortion in the late second 

trimester, three to four times higher than in the first trimester. For this reason, where there is the possibility 

of providing services for the production of abortion, it should be done at the earliest possible stages of preg-

nancy. Since the technical skill of the operator is the major determinant of the procedure should provide for 

adequate training of medical personnel who performed the abortion [10]. 

Pregnant teens, who come for abortion, need special attention and approach during counseling. Teens 

usually resort to abortion services in late pregnancy in their second trimester. In these terms the conduction 

of abortion is associated with increased risk and, in addition, this procedure is less available. Teens are usu-

ally very anxious and worried about their future fertility [10]. While sex education of teens forms of individ-

ual and group work are preferred. One of the most accessible forms can be systematic confidential conversa-

tion on the relationship between the sexes. To discuss issues of sexuality individual interviews medical pro-

fessionals, psychologists, teachers and social workers who provide psychosocial care are used [14]. 

Judgments on moral permissibility or impermissibility of abortion contain answers to two main ques-

tions. The first is whether it is possible to assume that from the moment of conception the embryo is a human 

being? A positive answer to this question means that the purpose of abortion is to kill creatures that already 

have a right to life. The second question is does a pregnant woman exclusively right to control over her own 

body? In other words, can it only be on her own to have an abortion, viewing it as the removal of a piece of 

tissue from the body such as hair and nail cutting? In this case, the positive response is based on the belief 

that a fetus can be considered a person with the right to life only when it turns into a child living outside the 

mother [8]. In modern conditions of disadvantage in the trends of the reproductive potential of women, it is 

necessary to highlight the concept of «perinatal health». It characterizes the ability of the individual from the 

prenatal period of life to be protected and developed in optimal conditions, allowing realizing the biological 

and psychosocial potentials. Fetus, as a born child, is a full patient, who is applicable of special methods of 

diagnosis, treatment and prevention [3]. 

Numerous psychological studies suggest that the answers to these questions, which reflect the people's 

attitude to abortion, depend on their age, gender, personal characteristics, religious beliefs and ideas about 

the inception of human life, and more. In studies of Western scientists, it is shown that women, who have 

abortions and who decided to make an unplanned child, differ in a number of psychological characteristics. 

For example, Canadian women who choose to terminate an unwanted pregnancy describe themselves as self-

reliant, independent, and stubborn and prefer freedom. U.B. Miller came to the conclusion that women who 

had an abortion, as a rule, are not married, independent, and tends to view the operation as an acceptable way 



А.Е.Konkabaeva, Z.Т.Kystaubaeva, М.Zh.Akhmetova 

44 


Вестник Карагандинского университета 

out of the situation for themselves and in the eyes of their families. The attribution of blame for what hap-

pened to partner or character traits, such as impulsivity and irresponsibility leads to more serious conse-

quences than searching for the source of the problem in a specific behavioral act. Women who are not in-

clined to blame the incident on the partner and the character, are better adapted psychologically to what hap-

pened after three or more weeks after the abortion [5]. 

Talking about the positive consequences of abortion, the researchers note autonomy, personal growth, 

improved relationships with others, the appearance of purpose in life and self-acceptance. In a study of 

G.M.Burnell and M.A.Norflit, conducted on a sample of 178 people after a year after the abortion, women 

reported increased energy, improved appearance, strengthening of relationships with partners and parents 

[15]. An important factor in the formation of attitudes to abortion is the view that if a fetus from the moment 

of conception is a human being. Psychological studies of health of women with and without experience of 

abortion have found the following. Women, who have had an abortion, and considered fetus as the human 

being felt much worse than those who did not make it. Those who have had abortions, but did not consider 

the fetus as a person, felt generally better than women without such experience. Those women who consid-

ered the fetus as the prototype of man, calling him a child, have been exposed to the reactions of constant 

frustration or negative revaluation. Women who believe that the fetus is something alien and certainly not 

human, either do not regret about their decision, either came to the senses according to the linear pattern of 

the reaction [16]. 

Unwanted pregnancy is one of the main problems women. Despite the enormous number of methods 

that prevent the occurrence of pregnancy, the abortion rate remains at a high-level. For most women, abor-

tion is the most affordable method of birth control. The reason for this is the lack of sex education, the lack 

of work of the cabinets of family planning [17]. In the XXI century, the problem of abortion (induced abor-

tion) is publicly discussed in the world as socially important and having a common human nature. It includes 

social, ethnic, religious, and many other parties [5]. 

Despite the enormous number of methods that prevent the occurrence of pregnancy, unwanted preg-

nancy remains one of the major challenges of the modern woman. Because in today's world, the problem of 

moral permissibility of abortion is common to all mankind, in respect abortion there are no sex or age differ-

ences. 

Every woman of childbearing becomes pregnant. During pregnancy, a woman's life has a set of 



changes. Psychological stress in the perinatal period brings with it a range of issues that require serious atten-

tion to the psychological sphere of pregnant to prevent obstetric and other complications. Pregnancy makes a 

woman emotionally vulnerable, prone to anxiety, more sensitive to negative experiences. But it should not be 

forgotten that pregnancy is a significant and important period in the life of any woman. 

 

 

References 



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region of the Republic // Bulletin of the South Kazakhstan Medical Academy. — 2007. — № 1. — P. 20–21. 

2  Smirnov A. Health and wellness // Basis of security of life. — 2000. — № 1. — P. 18–26. 

3  Andryushina E.V., Katkova I.P., Katkov V.I. Reproductive health of population — basis of population policy // Population. — 

2006. — № 4. — P. 16–34. 

4  Filippova G.G. Motherhood: Сomparative psychological аpproach // Asihologiya development. — 1999. — № 5. — P. 81–88. 

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6  Birzhanova K.J. The problem of prediction and prevention of complications after an induced abortion in the age aspect // 

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45 

13  Gundarov I.A., Boyko N.N. Decreased body mass index as a risk of miscarriage (population survey) // Obstetrics and Gyne-



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15  Burnell G.M., Norfleet M.A. Women’s self-reported responses to abortion // J. of Psychol. — 1987. — № 1. — P. 71–76. 

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А.Е.Қоңқабаева, З.Т.Қыстаубаева, М.Ж.Ахметова 




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