БАҒдарламасы (syllabus) Павлодар Кегль 14, буквы строчные, кроме первой прописной



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COMPREHENSION CHECK

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1. Which computer-market trend was entirely lost for IBM? Why did IBM fail its

entry into the PC market?

2. What features made IBM a pioneer in computer industry development?

3. What became the basis of the Microsoft production?

4. What did you learn about Apple Corporation?

5. How was the computer market divided between IBM, Microsoft and Apple

Corporation finally?



Exercise 2. Look at the two similar sentences. Which one is true? What makes 

the

second sentence false?

14

1. It was desktop-sized personal



computers that replaced the

minicomputer trend.

1. It was room-sized mainframe

computers that replaced the

minicomputer trend.

2. One of these computers was called

Apple and it was announced in 1975.

2.One of these computers was called

Altair and it was announced in 1975.

3. Those who wanted could have now

their own computer for business

purposes at home.

3. Those who wanted could have now

their own computer to play at home.

4. A computer industry so mighty

before began to fail.

4. A computer industry began to grow.

5. The Altair developers bought from



William Gates a computer language that

could run on their machine.

5. The Altair developers bought from

Microsoft Corporation a computer

language that could run on their

machine.


Exercise 3. Arrange the sentences in their logical sequence.

1. But its current name the company took only in 1924.

2. It used a punch-card technology and electrical circuit to advance the mechanical

counter.


3. These successful investments brought enormous profits for IBM.

4. The next machine to be introduced into the market was Model 650 initializing

punch-card technology.

5. This invention became the foundation on which IBM was built.

6. The digital electromechanical computer Mark I was one of the first to be 

financed


by IBM in 1943.

7. A new tabulating machine invented by Herman Hollerith was used for the US

Census of 1890.

8. Later on, IBM made heavy investments in producing peripheral equipment,

printers, terminals, key-punch machines and card sorters.

Exercise 4. Say what you have learnt about the development of the computer

industry. Begin your story with the phrases listed below.

After that…;

Now it is widely known that…;

The new computer caused the sensation because…;

In order to perform the new computer…

LANGUAGE ACTIVITY

Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps with prepositions to, with, into, on, from, off, over, at, 

of,

for if necessary.

1. The developers conceived … a new model … machine.

2. The investors insisted … development … a new trend … computers.

3. The customers bought … the company new computers.

4. The company left their minicomputers … sale.

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5. The computer helped perform a set … operations.



6. Software and peripherals are compatible … almost all modern computers.

7. Several applicants argue … the right to head the company.

8. The IBM Corporation capitalized … producing peripheral equipment.

9. We didn't forget the names … the scientists who have contributed … R&D.

10.Several devices aim … increasing the calculating speed.

11.We bought our computer … one of the shops of our city.

12.The firm used the money to buy … the cable television company.

Exercise 2.


a) Study using "make" or "do".

“Make” or “do”? In some contexts these two words have a similar meaning.

However, there is a rule which says that “make” usually carries the idea of 

creation,

construction.

Example: - Marry made this dress herself.

- This device was made by two students in one of the laboratories of the

University.

- Second-year students will make experiments next year.

As for “do”, it is usually associated with work, particular activity.

Example: - Second-year students will do laboratory work.

- Have you done your homework?

- We don’t do aerobics this year.

- He plans to do business.

However, there are many exceptions to these rules and specific uses of these verbs:

- to make a decision

- to make a mistake

- to make investments

- to make entry

- to make money

but:

- to do shopping



- to do subjects

- to do a favour

- to do without

b) Now cross out incorrect verbs:

1. My mother doesn’t do/make housework.

2. Did he do/make many mistakes?

3. Every child must do/make his room.

4. Will you do/make a cup of coffee?

5. I will do/make all my best to help you.

6. I’d like to do/make you an offer.

7. Will you do/make me a favour and pass the bread.

8. My mother is going to do/make a cake for your birthday.

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9. Now I can’t do/make without my computer.



Exercise 3. In the previous texts you have found sentences with the Possessive

Case. We'd like you to recollect what you know about this rule and to transform 

the

following sentences.

Example: This is a symbol of the concern of the government for the protection of 

the


rights of its citizens.

Rewritten: This is a symbol of the government’s concern for the protection of the

citizens’ rights.



Now try this exercise.

1. The Prime Minister of England quickly said she would announce the names of 

the

agitators.



2. After the speeches of the candidates, a vote was called for.

3. It is the aim of Indian planners to lift Calcutta to a place as one of the great

metropolises of the world.

TEXT 2

Exercise 1. Check the transcription in the dictionary and read the words listed

below.

Verbs

solve, store, require, distribute, access, deal with, stream



Adjectives

substantial, financial, solid, conventional



Adverbs

collectively, originally, directly, economically, automatically



Exercise 2. Read and translate the collocations:

to allow plug-and-play, data-intensive tasks, fluid-flow simulation, finite-element

analysis, to handle one-at-a-time.

Exercise 3. Match the synonyms.

Nouns:

1 2

1. component

2. purpose

3. device

4. advantage

5. capacity

6. aid

a) operation



b) aim

c) preference

d) data

e) part


f) help

g) power


h) apparatus

17

Verbs:



1 2

1. combine

2. require

3. support

4. solve

5. include

6. type


a) allow

b) involve

c) print

d) recognize

e) decide

f) link


g) demand

h) encourage



Scan-reading

A computer system

A computer system is a collection of components that work together to process

data. The purpose of a computer system is to make it as easy as possible for you to

use   computer   to   solve   problems.   A   functioning   computer   system   combines

hardware  elements   with   software   elements.   The   hardware   elements   are   the

mechanical devices,  the system, the machinery and the electronics. The software

elements are the programs written for the system. Collectively these components

provide a complete computer system.

Usually, a computer system requires three basic hardware items: the central

processor unit, which performs all data processing, a terminal device, which helps

users to communicate with their computer system and a memory storing programs

and   data.   These   three   devices   are   the   required   hardware   components   of   any

computer  system.   Computer   system   includes   many   other   devices:   a   printer,   a

scanner and a modem. These computer devices are called hardware.

A set of instructions telling a computer what to do is a program. Programs are

usually written in a Programming languages like Pascal, C++, etc. Applications are

programs for specific tasks. Applications include: database software, spreadsheets

calculations, word-processing on a word processor. To function hardware and

software, a computer needs an operation system program. Some operation systems

require   users   to   type   in   commands   to   tell   the   computer   what   to   do.   Many

computers use a graphical interface or point-and-click interface such as Windows.

Some interfaces allow plug-and-play, the possibility of connecting new hardware 

of the computer without having to adjust or configure the system to take the new

hardware into account: the interface program recognizes the hardware 

automatically.

Read the text and supply it with the suitable title.

Mainframes take their beginning from the original computer and are used

today   in   applications   requiring   substantial   data   processing   and   large   memory

capacity  These   processors   typically   require   room-size   facilities.   Mainframes

support many

peripheral devices and can drive several at a time, including printers, terminals,

card  readers, card punchers, tape drives, and disk drives. Memory is especially

important  since   mainframes   are   used   in   data-intensive   tasks   such   as   financial

operations.

Originally, the only way to communicate with a computer was through punched

cards, and thus mainframes still support reading and punching cards. As a result,


mainframes are often used to provide processing power after a problem has been

set up with the aid of a micro- or minicomputer. Moreover, mainframes are used to

link  together   distributed   smaller   processors   through-out   an   enterprise.   And

minicomputers can be tied directly into mainframes so users can access their large

database.

Supercomputers take advantage of the most recent advances in electronic

circuits,   processing   techniques,   and   memory   organization   to   reach   computing

speeds many times that of mainframes. Complex problems in CAD/CAM that were

not   even  considered   several   years   ago   can   now   be   solved   economically.

Applications of  supercomputers include modelling and simulation tasks such as

solid modelling,

kinematics, analysis, and fluid-flow simulations. Another major application is a

finite-element analysis. Here, a supercomputer will perform the task three to ten

times faster than a mainframe. Supercomputers work so much faster because of

data  pipelining, high-speed circuits, and large internal memories. In pipelining,

data  elements   are   streamed   through   the   processor   in   blocks   instead   of   being

handled oneat-a-time as in conventional computers.

COMPREHENSION CHECK

Exercise 1. Choose the right answer.

1. What is a program?

a) A set of instructions

b) A collection of components

c) A hardware component

2. What are applications?

a) Operation systems

b) Programs for specific tasks

c) Collections of components

3. When are mainframes used today?

a) When it is necessary to use only printers

b) In applications requiring substantial data processing and large

memory capacity.

c) When it is necessary to support a peripheral device.

4. Why can we conform that memory in mainframe is especially important?

a) It is because minicomputers can be tied directly into mainframes.

b) It is because it supports reading and punching cards.

c) It is because mainframes are used in data-intensive tasks such as

financial operations.

Exercise 2. Arrange the sentences from the text " New Agent, New Help" in 

their

logical order.

1. It's no secret that the amount of computer users has been expanding rapidly.

2. This flow of information has led to an interest in intelligent agents, software

assistants that perform retrieving and developing information.

3. Currently, there are plenty of companies developing agent software.

4. These intelligent agents will be used in a range of applications including user



interfaces, desktop applications, messaging commerce and network management.

5. Combined with the ability to look and listen, intelligent agents will make 

personal

computers closer to behave in a human-like way.

6. It's not accidental that users often treat their personal computers as if they were

humans.


7. By making computers more "social" engineers hope to make them more 

userfriendly.



LANGUAGE ACTIVITY

Exercise 1. Summarize your knowledge on the Conditional Sentences.

I. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. If the evolution of AI proceeds so rapidly, it will be able to solve almost any

problem arisen.

2. If we asked the computer to estimate possible results of our activity, it would 

give

us a reliable answer.



3. Surely, they would have done much more, if they had used the last model of

computers.

4. If I had enough money, I would buy the newest model of computers.

5. Should I be late, begin the negotiations without waiting for me.



II. Put the words in brackets into the correct form.

1. If a computer can answer some questions better and quicker than a man can do, 

it

(to be) a man who formulates the questions.



2. If you asked what a software is, I (to note) it as "an applied thought".

3. It's obvious that if there (to be) no computers, the progress of civilization 

wouldn't

be so rapid.

4. Producing of computer memory working model would have been possible in

1939, if many people (to credit) the invention.

5. If Herbert Simon and Alan Newell hadn't succeeded in creating logic Theorist,

someone else (to do) it.

6. If there is no adequate software, no computer (can) be used.

7. Had you backed up my opinion, the outcome (to be) more successful.

8. Were it permitted to our group to carry out the investigation, we certainly (to

finish) it on time.



Exercise 2. Complete the sentences.

1. If I were a genius, …

2. If my father were a tycoon of computer industry, …

3. If my girlfriend were a hacker, …

20

4. If I had $1000000 to spend in three days, …



TEXT 3

WORD-STUDY

Exercise 1. Check the transcription in the dictionary and read the words listed

below.

Nouns

sleuth, zeal, tycoon, concern, idea



Verbs

argue, approach, transfer, guess



Adverbs

untiringly, initially, joyfully



Adjectives

unrelenting, reluctant, long-overdue



Exercise 2. Read and translate the collocations:

detective job, adjoining school, overdue books, to pick up the idea, to say a 

reluctant

goodbye, to set apart, to get transferred.



Exercise 3. Make adverbs from the following adjectives according to the model 

and

translate them.

Adjective+ly

immediate, actual, initial, untiring, joyful, rapid.



Exercise 4. Fix your attention to negative prefixes. Translate the words.

understand - misunderstand

place - misplace

read - misread

shelve - misshelve

reparable - irreparable

responsible - irresponsible

regular - irregular



Exercise 5. Match the synonyms.

Verbs

1 2

1. pick up

2. announce

3. transfer to

4. argue

5. set apart

6. guess

a) move to

b) understand

c) declare

d) disagree

e) suppose

f) make different

g) find


21

h) win


Nouns

1 2

1. job


2. concern

3. zeal


4. determination

5. sleuth

a) wish

b) enthusiasm



c) worry

d) detective

e) work

f) number



g) break

Scan-reading

BOY WITH THE BILLION-DOLLAR SECRET

One day in 1965, when I was a librarian at View Ridge School in Seattle, a

primary school teacher approached me. She had a pupil who finished his work

before all the others and needed a challenge. "Could he help in the library?" she

asked. I said, "Send him along."

Soon a slight, sandy-haired boy in jeans and a T-shirt appeared. "Do you have

a job for me?" he asked.

I told him about the Dewey decimal numbering system used for shelving

books. He picked up the idea immediately. Then I showed him a stack of cards for

long-overdue books that I was beginning to think had actually been returned but

were misshelved with the wrong cards in them. He said, "Is it a kind of a detective

job?" I answered “yes”, and he became an unrelenting sleuth.

He had found three books with wrong cards by the time his teacher opened the

door and announced, "Time for break!" He argued for finishing the job; she made

the case for fresh air. She won.

The next morning, he arrived early. "I wanted to finish finding those books,"

he said. At the end of the day, when he asked to be a librarian on a regular basis, it

was easy to say yes. He worked untiringly.

After a few weeks I found a note on my desk, inviting me to dinner at the boy's

home. At the end of a pleasant evening, his mother said that the family would be

moving  to   the   adjoining   school   district.   Her  son's   first   concern,   she   said,   was

leaving


the View Ridge library. "Who will find the lost books?" he asked.

When the time came, I said a reluctant goodbye. Though initially he had

seemed an ordinary kid, his zeal had set him apart.

I missed him, but not for long. A few days later he popped through the door

and joyfully announced, "The librarian over there doesn't let boys work in the

library.


My mother got me transferred back to View Ridge. My dad will drop me off on his

way to work. And if he can't, I'll walk!"

I should have had an inkling that such focused determination would take that


young man wherever he wanted to go. What I could not have guessed, however,

was that he would become a wizard of the Information Age: Bill Gates, tycoon of

Microsoft and America's richest man.

Notes

Dewey decimal numbering system – специальный метод, которым пользуются в

библиотеках для размещения книг на полках

focused determination – твердое намерение

overdue books – книги, не возвращенные в библиотеку вовремя

make the case for – привести доводы в пользу …

to need a challenge – нуждаться в дополнительной работе

unrelenting sleuth – неутомимый сыщик

zeal - энтузиазм

COMPEHENSION CHECK

Exercise 1. Retell the story of Bill Gates as a student of View Ridge School.

Exercise 2. Complete the story of William Gates as a tycoon of Microsoft.

LANGUAGE ACTIVITY

Exercise 1. Summarize your knowledge on the System of Tenses.

I. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to Tenses.

1. The American writer Isaak Asimov tells about wonderful computing machines

and schools of distant future.

2. In 1822 Charles Babbage created the first mechanical calculator.

3. After school Gates went on studying at Harvard University.

4. The National Physical Laboratory is now conducting experiments aimed to

recognize human speech.

5. Instructions will tell the hardware what to do and will tell the user what it has

done.

6. By 1880 manufacturing technology had improved to the point that new 



machines

could be produced.

7. In some years IBM publication department will be fulfilling 100% translation

demands via machines.

8. For many years, universities and colleges have been looking for ways of offering

courses to students living far from classes.

9. By the beginning of the network age Microsoft Corporation had been selling

software for individual PCs.



II. Put the verbs in the brackets into the correct forms.

1. Programming already (to become) a very important branch of national economy.

For example, experts (to work) now on a computer program for agriculture.

23

2. In the 1980s the production of microcomputers (to double), the production of



microprocessors increased five times. This year we (to do) our best to meet

requirements of the day.

3. Our immediate task (to be) to advance our technology and increase the

manufacture of computers. We certainly (to solve) this problem.



4. The Elbrus 2 (to become) the next in the line of supercomputers. The engineers 

(to


work) for three years before it was placed at the disposal of scientists.

5. The first computers (to fill) a large room with their electronics. Air-conditioning

was poor at that time and computers (to get) so hot during their work that the

operators (to have) to dress in T-shirts and tennis shoes.



Exercise 2. Summarize your knowledge on the Sequence of Tenses and the

Reported Speech, and put the verbs in brackets into correct forms.

1. The librarian says that she (to work) at a primary school in Seattle.

2. The teacher said that her pupil (to be) a very smart boy.

3. We know that experts (to elaborate) new computing technologies now.

4. Only few people knew that Babbage (to work out) a brand new device.

5. The Corporation sells its computers on the terms it previously (to insist on).




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