1. Which computer-market trend was entirely lost for IBM? Why did IBM fail its
entry into the PC market?
2. What features made IBM a pioneer in computer industry development?
3. What became the basis of the Microsoft production?
4. What did you learn about Apple Corporation?
5. How was the computer market divided between IBM, Microsoft and Apple
1. It was desktop-sized personal
1. It was room-sized mainframe
computers that replaced the
2. One of these computers was called
Apple and it was announced in 1975.
2.One of these computers was called
Altair and it was announced in 1975.
3. Those who wanted could have now
their own computer for business
purposes at home.
3. Those who wanted could have now
their own computer to play at home.
4. A computer industry so mighty
before began to fail.
4. A computer industry began to grow.
5. The Altair developers bought from
could run on their machine.
5. The Altair developers bought from
Microsoft Corporation a computer
language that could run on their
1. But its current name the company took only in 1924.
2. It used a punch-card technology and electrical circuit to advance the mechanical
4. The next machine to be introduced into the market was Model 650 initializing
5. This invention became the foundation on which IBM was built.
6. The digital electromechanical computer Mark I was one of the first to be
7. A new tabulating machine invented by Herman Hollerith was used for the US
Census of 1890.
8. Later on, IBM made heavy investments in producing peripheral equipment,
printers, terminals, key-punch machines and card sorters.
Exercise 4. Say what you have learnt about the development of the computer
industry. Begin your story with the phrases listed below.
Now it is widely known that…;
The new computer caused the sensation because…;
In order to perform the new computer…
Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps with prepositions to, with, into, on, from, off, over, at,
for if necessary.
1. The developers conceived … a new model … machine.
2. The investors insisted … development … a new trend … computers.
3. The customers bought … the company new computers.
4. The company left their minicomputers … sale.
5. The computer helped perform a set … operations.
7. Several applicants argue … the right to head the company.
8. The IBM Corporation capitalized … producing peripheral equipment.
9. We didn't forget the names … the scientists who have contributed … R&D.
10.Several devices aim … increasing the calculating speed.
11.We bought our computer … one of the shops of our city.
12.The firm used the money to buy … the cable television company.
“Make” or “do”? In some contexts these two words have a similar meaning.
However, there is a rule which says that “make” usually carries the idea of
Example: - Marry made this dress herself.
- This device was made by two students in one of the laboratories of the
- Second-year students will make experiments next year.
As for “do”, it is usually associated with work, particular activity.
Example: - Second-year students will do laboratory work.
- Have you done your homework?
- We don’t do aerobics this year.
- He plans to do business.
However, there are many exceptions to these rules and specific uses of these verbs:
- to make a decision
- to make a mistake
- to make investments
- to make entry
- to make money
- to do shopping
- to do a favour
- to do without
b) Now cross out incorrect verbs:
1. My mother doesn’t do/make housework.
2. Did he do/make many mistakes?
3. Every child must do/make his room.
4. Will you do/make a cup of coffee?
5. I will do/make all my best to help you.
6. I’d like to do/make you an offer.
7. Will you do/make me a favour and pass the bread.
8. My mother is going to do/make a cake for your birthday.
9. Now I can’t do/make without my computer.
1. The Prime Minister of England quickly said she would announce the names of
3. It is the aim of Indian planners to lift Calcutta to a place as one of the great
metropolises of the world.
Exercise 1. Check the transcription in the dictionary and read the words listed
solve, store, require, distribute, access, deal with, stream
substantial, financial, solid, conventional
collectively, originally, directly, economically, automatically
to allow plug-and-play, data-intensive tasks, fluid-flow simulation, finite-element
analysis, to handle one-at-a-time.
Exercise 3. Match the synonyms.
A computer system is a collection of components that work together to process
data. The purpose of a computer system is to make it as easy as possible for you to
use computer to solve problems. A functioning computer system combines
hardware elements with software elements. The hardware elements are the
mechanical devices, the system, the machinery and the electronics. The software
elements are the programs written for the system. Collectively these components
provide a complete computer system.
Usually, a computer system requires three basic hardware items: the central
processor unit, which performs all data processing, a terminal device, which helps
users to communicate with their computer system and a memory storing programs
and data. These three devices are the required hardware components of any
computer system. Computer system includes many other devices: a printer, a
scanner and a modem. These computer devices are called hardware.
A set of instructions telling a computer what to do is a program. Programs are
usually written in a Programming languages like Pascal, C++, etc. Applications are
programs for specific tasks. Applications include: database software, spreadsheets
calculations, word-processing on a word processor. To function hardware and
software, a computer needs an operation system program. Some operation systems
require users to type in commands to tell the computer what to do. Many
computers use a graphical interface or point-and-click interface such as Windows.
Some interfaces allow plug-and-play, the possibility of connecting new hardware
of the computer without having to adjust or configure the system to take the new
hardware into account: the interface program recognizes the hardware
Read the text and supply it with the suitable title.
Mainframes take their beginning from the original computer and are used
today in applications requiring substantial data processing and large memory
capacity These processors typically require room-size facilities. Mainframes
peripheral devices and can drive several at a time, including printers, terminals,
card readers, card punchers, tape drives, and disk drives. Memory is especially
important since mainframes are used in data-intensive tasks such as financial
Originally, the only way to communicate with a computer was through punched
cards, and thus mainframes still support reading and punching cards. As a result,
set up with the aid of a micro- or minicomputer. Moreover, mainframes are used to
link together distributed smaller processors through-out an enterprise. And
minicomputers can be tied directly into mainframes so users can access their large
Supercomputers take advantage of the most recent advances in electronic
circuits, processing techniques, and memory organization to reach computing
speeds many times that of mainframes. Complex problems in CAD/CAM that were
not even considered several years ago can now be solved economically.
Applications of supercomputers include modelling and simulation tasks such as
kinematics, analysis, and fluid-flow simulations. Another major application is a
finite-element analysis. Here, a supercomputer will perform the task three to ten
times faster than a mainframe. Supercomputers work so much faster because of
data pipelining, high-speed circuits, and large internal memories. In pipelining,
data elements are streamed through the processor in blocks instead of being
handled oneat-a-time as in conventional computers.
Exercise 1. Choose the right answer.
1. What is a program?
a) A set of instructions
b) A collection of components
c) A hardware component
2. What are applications?
a) Operation systems
b) Programs for specific tasks
c) Collections of components
3. When are mainframes used today?
a) When it is necessary to use only printers
b) In applications requiring substantial data processing and large
c) When it is necessary to support a peripheral device.
4. Why can we conform that memory in mainframe is especially important?
a) It is because minicomputers can be tied directly into mainframes.
b) It is because it supports reading and punching cards.
c) It is because mainframes are used in data-intensive tasks such as
Exercise 2. Arrange the sentences from the text " New Agent, New Help" in
1. It's no secret that the amount of computer users has been expanding rapidly.
2. This flow of information has led to an interest in intelligent agents, software
assistants that perform retrieving and developing information.
3. Currently, there are plenty of companies developing agent software.
4. These intelligent agents will be used in a range of applications including user
5. Combined with the ability to look and listen, intelligent agents will make
computers closer to behave in a human-like way.
6. It's not accidental that users often treat their personal computers as if they were
1. If the evolution of AI proceeds so rapidly, it will be able to solve almost any
2. If we asked the computer to estimate possible results of our activity, it would
us a reliable answer.
4. If I had enough money, I would buy the newest model of computers.
5. Should I be late, begin the negotiations without waiting for me.
1. If a computer can answer some questions better and quicker than a man can do,
(to be) a man who formulates the questions.
3. It's obvious that if there (to be) no computers, the progress of civilization
be so rapid.
4. Producing of computer memory working model would have been possible in
1939, if many people (to credit) the invention.
5. If Herbert Simon and Alan Newell hadn't succeeded in creating logic Theorist,
someone else (to do) it.
6. If there is no adequate software, no computer (can) be used.
7. Had you backed up my opinion, the outcome (to be) more successful.
8. Were it permitted to our group to carry out the investigation, we certainly (to
finish) it on time.
1. If I were a genius, …
2. If my father were a tycoon of computer industry, …
3. If my girlfriend were a hacker, …
4. If I had $1000000 to spend in three days, …
sleuth, zeal, tycoon, concern, idea
argue, approach, transfer, guess
untiringly, initially, joyfully
unrelenting, reluctant, long-overdue
detective job, adjoining school, overdue books, to pick up the idea, to say a
goodbye, to set apart, to get transferred.
immediate, actual, initial, untiring, joyful, rapid.
understand - misunderstand
place - misplace
read - misread
shelve - misshelve
reparable - irreparable
responsible - irresponsible
regular - irregular
1. pick up
3. transfer to
5. set apart
a) move to
f) make different
One day in 1965, when I was a librarian at View Ridge School in Seattle, a
primary school teacher approached me. She had a pupil who finished his work
before all the others and needed a challenge. "Could he help in the library?" she
asked. I said, "Send him along."
Soon a slight, sandy-haired boy in jeans and a T-shirt appeared. "Do you have
a job for me?" he asked.
I told him about the Dewey decimal numbering system used for shelving
books. He picked up the idea immediately. Then I showed him a stack of cards for
long-overdue books that I was beginning to think had actually been returned but
were misshelved with the wrong cards in them. He said, "Is it a kind of a detective
job?" I answered “yes”, and he became an unrelenting sleuth.
He had found three books with wrong cards by the time his teacher opened the
door and announced, "Time for break!" He argued for finishing the job; she made
the case for fresh air. She won.
The next morning, he arrived early. "I wanted to finish finding those books,"
he said. At the end of the day, when he asked to be a librarian on a regular basis, it
was easy to say yes. He worked untiringly.
After a few weeks I found a note on my desk, inviting me to dinner at the boy's
home. At the end of a pleasant evening, his mother said that the family would be
moving to the adjoining school district. Her son's first concern, she said, was
When the time came, I said a reluctant goodbye. Though initially he had
seemed an ordinary kid, his zeal had set him apart.
I missed him, but not for long. A few days later he popped through the door
and joyfully announced, "The librarian over there doesn't let boys work in the
way to work. And if he can't, I'll walk!"
I should have had an inkling that such focused determination would take that
was that he would become a wizard of the Information Age: Bill Gates, tycoon of
Microsoft and America's richest man.
Dewey decimal numbering system – специальный метод, которым пользуются в
библиотеках для размещения книг на полках
focused determination – твердое намерение
overdue books – книги, не возвращенные в библиотеку вовремя
make the case for – привести доводы в пользу …
to need a challenge – нуждаться в дополнительной работе
unrelenting sleuth – неутомимый сыщик
zeal - энтузиазм
Exercise 1. Retell the story of Bill Gates as a student of View Ridge School.
Exercise 2. Complete the story of William Gates as a tycoon of Microsoft.
Exercise 1. Summarize your knowledge on the System of Tenses.
I. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to Tenses.
1. The American writer Isaak Asimov tells about wonderful computing machines
and schools of distant future.
2. In 1822 Charles Babbage created the first mechanical calculator.
3. After school Gates went on studying at Harvard University.
4. The National Physical Laboratory is now conducting experiments aimed to
recognize human speech.
5. Instructions will tell the hardware what to do and will tell the user what it has
6. By 1880 manufacturing technology had improved to the point that new
could be produced.
7. In some years IBM publication department will be fulfilling 100% translation
demands via machines.
8. For many years, universities and colleges have been looking for ways of offering
courses to students living far from classes.
9. By the beginning of the network age Microsoft Corporation had been selling
software for individual PCs.
1. Programming already (to become) a very important branch of national economy.
For example, experts (to work) now on a computer program for agriculture.
2. In the 1980s the production of microcomputers (to double), the production of
requirements of the day.
3. Our immediate task (to be) to advance our technology and increase the
manufacture of computers. We certainly (to solve) this problem.
5. The first computers (to fill) a large room with their electronics. Air-conditioning
was poor at that time and computers (to get) so hot during their work that the
operators (to have) to dress in T-shirts and tennis shoes.
1. The librarian says that she (to work) at a primary school in Seattle.
2. The teacher said that her pupil (to be) a very smart boy.
3. We know that experts (to elaborate) new computing technologies now.
4. Only few people knew that Babbage (to work out) a brand new device.
5. The Corporation sells its computers on the terms it previously (to insist on).