INFLUENCE OF DENG XIAOPING’S REFORMS ON CHINESE YOUTH A.S. Akhmetov Scientific Supervisor Prof. Zhuldyz Tulibayeva Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Economics Özet Bu araştırmanın amacını Deng Xiaoping reformlarının Çin gençliği üzerindeki etkisini incelemek
teşkil etmektedir Söz konusu reformlar başlangıçta ekonomik nitelik taşısa da, Çin Halk
Cumhuriyeti’ndeki hayatın bir çok yönüne tesir etmiştir. Reformlar eğitim alanında da meydana
gelmesinden dolayı, gençliğe doğrudan tesir etmiştir. 1950-70’nci yıllarda Çin eğitim sistemi kitlesel
üretim yapacak emek gücünü sağlamaya yönelik olmuştur. Deng Komünist partiye geri döndükten sonra
okullar ve üniversitelerdeki eğitim sürecini reform etmeye başlamıştır. Bu ise eğitimin gelişmesine ve yeni
nesil profesyonellerin ortaya çımasına ve genel olarak ülke gelişmesine yol açmıştır. Sınırların açılması
gibi reformlar devrinin özelliklerinin negatif de dahil olmak üzere gençlik üzerinde önemli etkileri
olmuştur. Günümüz gençliği geleneksel değerler sisteminden uzaklaşmakta ve maddiciliği ve çıkarcılığı
daha çok benimser olmaktadır. Maddi değerler, ahlaki değerleri ikame etmeye başlamıştır. Toplum ve aile
artık yüzyıllar boyu oynadığı önemli rolü oynamamaktadır. Yönetim toplumun geleceğinden endişe
duyarak, Batı uygarlığının gençlik üzerindeki etkisini azaltmak istemektedir ve gelenesler değerleri,
mesela Konfüçyüs değerleri desteklemektedir.Çin örneği, küreselleşme ile batılılaşmanın toplum
üzerindeki, özellikle onun en hassas kesimi olan gençlik üzerindeki etkisini göstermesi ile önemlidir.
Anahtar kelimeler:reformlar, gençler, eğitim sistemi, modernleşme, maddi değerler, ahlaki değerler,
batılılaşma, Batı’nın değeri, internet, ‘bir aile bir çocuk’, ‘küçük emperatorlar’
Түйін Менің зерттеуімнің мақсаты - Дэн Сяопинның реформаларының Қытайдың жастарына ықпалы
болды. Осы реформалар, әуелі экономикалық бола, Қытай Халықтық республикасында өмірдің
көптеген аспекттеріне әсер етті және қоғамға да әсері көп болды. Реформалар білім беру
саласында бола отырып , жастардың тәрбиесіне түра ықпал етті. 50-70 жылдарда Қытайдың білім
беру жүйесі жұмысшы шығарылымына бағытталған болатын, өйткені олар бұқаралық өндірістің
сүйеуі үшін болды. Дэн Сяопин 19732 жылы өзінің КПКға оралуынан кейін бастауыш мектептер
мен Жоғарғы оқу орындарындағы Білім беру жүйесіне өзгерістер енгізді. Сол реформаның
арқасында кәсіпқой жаңа ұрпақтың келуі жүзеге асты және бұл мемлекеттің одан әрі дамуында
ерекше роль атқарды. Мұндай өзгерістер өз зиянын да дамуға зиянын тигізді.
Қазіргі жастарға дәстүр мен салт жат болып, прагматизм және рационалдылық белең алған
сында. Күннен кунге өз басын ойлайтын жастар саны өсуде. Материалдық құндылықтар
моральдық құндылықтарды алмастырған сияқты. Қоғам мен отбасы бұрынғыдай аса маңызды роль
атқармайды. Қытай үкіметі бұл жағдайды түзеу үшін шаралар қабылдауды жөн көріп, Батыстың
әсерін азайтуға тырысуда. Олар қоғамда дәстүрлік және Кунфуциандық көзқарастарды таратуда.
Қытай мысалының тәлімділігі оның Батыстың және жаһанданудың әсерін анық көрсетуде,
әсіресе қоғамның өзгерістерге ең бейім бөлігі-жастарға әсерін айқындауда.
Аннотация Целью моего исследования было оценить влияние реформ Дэн Сяопина на молодежь Китая.
Эти реформы, будучи изначально экономическими, повлияли на многие аспекты жизни в
Китайской Народной Республике, в том числе и на общество. Реформы произошли и в
образовательной сфере, тем самым, они оказали прямое влияние на молодежь. В 50-70-ые годы
образовательная система Китая была ориентирована на выпуск рабочих для поддержания
массового производства. Дэн Сяопин после своего возвращения в КПК в 1973 решил начать с
реформирования образования в школах и ВУЗах страны. Это привело к рассвету образования и
выпуску нового поколения профессионалов, что отразилось на дальнейшем развитии государства.
Такие особенности периода реформ как открытость границ оказали на молодежь косвенное
влияние, в том числе и негативное. Нынешняя молодежь уже в процессе отхождения от
традиционной системы ценностей, им свойственны такие черты как рациональность и прагматизм.
Все больше и больше молодых людей заботятся о личных интересах и целях. Материальные
ценности начали заменять моральные. Общество и семья больше не играет той значительной роли,
которую они играли испокон веков. Китайские власти, пытаясь спасти положение и проявляя
обеспокоенность за будущее страны, всячески пытаются уменьшить влияние Запада на молодежь.
Они начинают пропагандировать и продвигать в обществе традиционные ценности и
Конфуцианские нормы. Пример Китая полезен тем, что он наглядно демонстрирует влияние
«глобализации» и «вестернизации» на общество, в частности на ее уязвимую и более
подверженную изменениям прослойку-молодежь.
Abstract The purpose of my research is to evaluate the impact of reforms of Deng Xiaoping on youth in China.
Thosereforms, beingeconomical by their origin, changed the way of thinking of Chinese youth, their
values. And after several decades since reforms were implemented their influence on youth have been
reflected on nowadays Chinese society. Educational system was also reformed, thus it influenced directly
on youth.During 50-60-70s education mainly aimed at providing workers for massive production. After
his return in 1973, Deng Xiaoping started with reformation of education in schools and universities. His
reforms in general were successful and led to appearance of a new generation of professionals, which
reflected in latter development of China. Such features of period of reformation as opening of borders
indirectly affected youth, to some extent negatively. Contemporary youth is in a process of diverge from
traditional system of values; they have become rational and pragmatic. More and more they care about
themselves, aiming at reaching own goals. Material values overcome moral values. Society and family no
more plays significant role in lives of Chinese young men, as they used to do before. Chinese officials
concern about future and promoting traditional values and Confucius norms in a society. The example of
China is important as far it’s demonstrates influence of “globalization” and “westernization” on a society,
particularly on its most vulnerable part-youth.
Keywords: reforms, Chinese youth, educational system, modernization, material values, moral
values, westernization, western influence, Internet, “one family-one child”, “little emperors”.
Introduction Deng Xiaoping is the man who changed China from inside, turned it from weak industrial-agrarian
country into economical giant within almost 3 decades. The man who understood that development isn't
possible without modernization. He combined Marxist teachings with market environment which is called
"socialism with Chinese specifics".
Modernization influenced many spheres: education, economy, science, production. His reforms not
only in the sphere of education, but also in politics and economy in long-term distance reflected in society.
Mainly, reflected upon contemporary Chinese youth. Impact may be divided into direct and indirect parts.
Reforms in educational system should be considered as direct impact. Outcomes of free economy, opening
of borders and liberalization in general should be considered as indirect impact. First, I will try to explain
reforms on education and their influence on youth and new generation. Further influences of other reforms
on youth will be described.
Impact of reforms in educational system on youth In order to evaluate impact on youth I decided to look on educational system of China first. If we look
at past, we can see that educational system in 50s, 60s and 70s was different than latter system. Primary
and secondary schools mainly aimed at elimination of illiteracy. Mao’s government emphasized the role of
prep-schools and technical universities, because they provided specialists to support production.
Education, in comparison with contemporary ones, did not consider individual characteristics of a student,
social sciences were not taught. As a result, gross share of technical sciences in educational sector only
increased, which led to a misbalance in educational system in general. Educational system lost its quality,
it was weakened. /1/
Besides, Mao Zedong’s such policies as “cultural revolution” harmed education. Many teachers,
academicians and students were repressed. Young red guards publicly punished their teachers. Deng
Xiaoping foresaw a catastrophe. He pointed out Mao his mistakes. Deng also criticized Mao’s economic
policies. He knew that all types of “great leap forwards” in fact devastated economy from inside, moreover
in cost thousands of lives. Deng adhered strategic and long-term planning. For his criticism in 1966 Deng
Xiaoping was sent for corrective labor.
In 1974 Deng Xiaoping returned to CCP as First Vice-Premier. He created new educational system
where 9 years of education were considered as obligatory. After school students could continue studying
in prep-schools or universities. Post-graduate internships were done in industrial undertakings, agriculture
or military organizations. /2/ Step by step government started increasing expenditures on higher education.
Since 1978 entire system of higher education were reformed. According to the new standards 4-5 years
apprenticeship and common tests for entrance were accepted. /3;4/ Due to these reforms and "open state"
policy China in 1981 accepted international degree system: bachelor-masters-PhD.In 1995 The Ministry of
Education of PRC developed " project211", according to this project 100 best universities were chosen
with the intent of raising the research standards of high-level universities and cultivating strategies for
socio-economic development. Before this project none of Chinese universities were recognized abroad,
but today according to international “QSWorldUniversityRankings” rating 7 Chinese universities are in
top-200 universities in the world.These educational reforms reflected in the amount of students studying in
schools, prep-school and in universities. Here is the diagram that shows the amount of students in China
(last column) in a period of 2003-2007 (in mln people) /5/. During reformation state officials realized the significance of society, culture and traditions in process
of modernization. Since 1980 officials proclaimed "course on raising quality characteristics of the nation",
which accompanied with appearance in educational institutions of programs of developing individual
characteristics of students, such as self-starter, ability to make decisions by themselves, self-esteem.
Professionals with these qualities would be important in in further development of a country. /6/
In conclusion I can say that the key points of the development of education in China are:
Realization of educational conception “development through research”
Implementation of “research-base for technology” scheme into university environment
Teaching university graduates strategic management of development of innovations
Increasing of salaries of teachers, professors with the aim of accumulating human resources for
Formation and support for scientific schools of China. /7/
It is considered that the Chinese educational system based on traditions and enriched with modern
technology is the key factor of successful innovational development of country.Reforms since 1970’s
brought to China new type of skillful professionals and this factor led to establishing of competitive
environment in various fields. Sustainable development of Chinese economy increased interest of
foreigners in Chinese culture, language and education itself. Nowadays Chinese universities became very
popular among foreign students. High interest in China might be beneficial in the near future.
Reflection of other policies in contemporary Chinese youth Deng Xiaoping’s reforms would not be possible without open door and open market policies.
Changes since the beginning of those policies touched different spheres of life: from political to
economical, even the way people behave in a family and society. In particular youth started to change. In
order to prevent negative influence of western culture at Chinese youthDeng Xiaoping pointed at necessity
of ideological education. /8/ However, China, which through centuries had been closed society with
Confucius model of behavior taken as the basic norm of behavior, started changing. Western influence led
to broadening of outlook and people overviewed their values. Such values of Confucianism as hierarchy
and vertical model of relations among people became a thing of the past. The Chinese youth was quickly
impacted by western values such as pragmatism and rationality. According to Chinese sociologist Li Lin
since second half of 80s Chinese youth tried to imitate west and strived to improve life conditions even
without trying to save national specifics. In point of fact it was shift to acceptance of western way of life
(“westernization”). Next step, as he said, was analytical, where practice of “blind imitation” was analyzed.
The youth recognized that in order to achieve success it isn’t enough to copy someone else’s experience,
but implement western standards into Chinese reality. Since 1970s, due to economic reforms the youth
understood that reaching own goals are possible with money.That led to domination of material values
over moral. After 1990’s money became the main value. /9/
In contemporary China the youth while choosing life values is more self-interest oriented, seek for the
opportunity of self-actualization, even choose material interest. Besides Deng Xiaoping’s modernization
reforms it was caused by “one family-one child” policy. This policy, which is being actively
propagandized by Chinese government, led to social alterations. New generation of “little emperors” are
described as young maximalists, surrounded with care of parents and relatives from the day of birth. These
“little emperors”, compared with their ancestors, less care about people around and more concerned in
themselves. Individualism to some extent explains withdrawal of youth from political processes within
country, all the more so within communistic China.
Openness of the country led not only transformation of the system of values of Chinese youth but also
changed a lot the way of their lives. Different sociologists stated that many of young Chinese are trying to
act and look like Europeans. Their intention to do so is reflected in their everyday clothes style, in their
intention to visit cafes and restaurants. In sociological surveys most of them preferred “western way of
life” rather than traditional way of life. It is even reflected in such everyday habits as using forks instead of
chopsticks and visiting gyms instead of exercising traditional Chinese Qigong. /10/
Big interest for anything “western” even reflected in an amount of fast-food chains. Interesting fact
that the biggest amount of KFC restaurants is in China!
In the one hand openness of a country brought such western values as activeness, pursuit of success,
ambition, initiative which is good in creating competitive environment among future professionals. But
every coin has two sides.
As it was mentioned before large amount of fast-food restaurants is the main cause for obesity. In
contemporary China it is one of the vexed problems of society. According to WHO statistics in 2008,
11.1% of population aged 20 and older has this problem. /11;12/
“One family-one child” policy also to some extent causes this problem. Children often spoiled by
their parents. Many of contemporary parents try to surround their child with luxury and permissiveness.
As a result modern child has such problems as obesity, absence of interest for action-oriented or outdoor
games, big amount of time spent on computer games. /13/
Internet also plays significant role in lives of Chinese youth. It appeared in China in 1994, and now
China has the biggest number of the Internet users-298 million. /14/ Internet became important part of
lives of the youth; it has changed typical forms of education, rest, communication and consumption. The
young generation even uses special “internet-lexicon” in their usual communication; it is also used in
order to hide from elder people the topic of their conversation. It shows the increasing gap between old
and young generations.
«886» - “good bye”
«88» - “bye”
«520» - “I love you”
«596» - “I’m leaving”
«3Q» - “Thank you”
It isn’t the only problem caused by internet.Spread of information that contains violence,
pornography, illegal internet trade, infringement of copyright. Many teenagers are considered internet-
addicted. Internet-addiction is officially entered in a list of mental affections. Internet is also used as a tool
of ideological influence on youth.
China blocked the access to such resources as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Google+. It shows the
intention of a government to regulate internet-sector and save cultural identity of a country in a period of
globalization. Some consider it as a censorship, but Chinese officials state that it is necessary measure.
Besides the internet one of the most spread problems of China is drug addiction. Chinese drug
problems started with two Opium Wars, but it was almost disappeared during Mao Zedong’s reign. Thus,
society was safe from this problem until 1970.
After 1970’s, when borders opened China became transit zone in drug trafficking from Myanmar,
Laos and Thailand. Soon it also became big market outlet. The youth due to newly appeared stereotypes
considered drug consumption as trend, many of them started inquisitively. It led to irreversible effect. In
2010, total number of drug addicted was 1,5 million. Almost 80% of them are young men. /15/
Openness of borders led not only to a drug trafficking. Prostitution is also became immediate problem
of Chinese society. It is the way of income distribution in the context of economic and social inequality.
Under the conditions of increasing urbanization in China for villagers and women from provinces it
became one of the ways of adaptation to the city life. Economic reforms that brought elements of market
economy caused increase of unemployment rate and cost of life, but decreased the salary. It is also
affected on the appearance of such problem.
Suicide is also one of the results of reforms. According to WHO data since 1990’s China in terms of
amount of suicide is on the first place in the world. Among causes for suicide among youth there are tense
in a family, low degree of social security, social-economic problems, and failure in seeking for job after
graduate, low wages, drug addiction and prostitution (where most of women do this due to dead-lock
situation in their lives). /16/
Unfortunately, the number of those who commit suicide is rising. Stresses, ruined health are caused
by rapid economic development of China. And many young men are not able to withstand harsh economic
condition and rising competition. Thus, the traditional system of values of the Chinese youth is being
affected by strong influence of reforming Chinese society and western culture. /17/
Conclusion In contemporary China the youth is forming new set of values, based on synthesis of traditional and
globalized culture. As a result pragmatism is now playing big role in life of the Chinese youth; it means
that power and wealth will remain main goal of each Chinese young man.
Chinese government is trying to prevent the negative influence of western ideology and values on the
youth. Also government is trying to fight youth problems (drugs, prostitution, alcohol addiction) by
promoting traditional Confucian values. If not to do so China is risking bringing up the generation of
“little emperors”, who in the future will come to the power. It is considered dangerous for development in
terms of “Chinese specific socialism”. Chinese example of reforms in political, social, economic and
educational spheres is important as far as it teaches long-term planning and is future oriented. But since
the development of communication and technology in the era of globalization it takes a lot of efforts to
keep society secured from negative influence. I hope Chinese model of society building will be efficient
and will be example of combination of traditions and modernization, which will be the base for country’s
Боревская Н.В. От школы классической к школе постиндустриальной // Китай на пути к
модернизации и реформ. 1949 – 1999. – М.: Издательская фирма «Восточная литература» РАН,
1999. – с. 559 – 578
Xiaohuan Su. Education in China: Reforms and Innovations. – Beijing: China Intercontinental
Press, 2002. – 190 р.
Чжу Сяомань. Реформа содержания образования в Китае // Педагогика. – 2005. – №1. –
Фролова Н.А., Зазулин Г.В. Актуальные вопросы антинаркотической политики:
отечественный и зарубежный опыт. – М.: Орбита, 2003. – 272 с.
Боревская Н.В. От школы классической к школе постиндустриальной // Китай на пути к
модернизации и реформ. 1949 – 1999. – М.: Издательская фирма «Восточная литература» РАН,
1999. – с. 559 – 578
Каукенова Т. Развитие образования в современном Китае: кризисные явления и поиски
Дэн Сяопин. Основные вопросы современного Китая. – М.: Политиздат, 1988. – 256 с.
Лин Л. Ценностные ориентации молодежи КНР в условиях построения
социалистической рыночной экономики // Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. – 2003.
– Том IV. – №3. – с.184–192
Буров В.Г. Китай и китайцы глазами российского ученого. – М., 2000. – 208 с.
Официальный сайт компании KFC Corporation [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа:
Jieying Xi. Chinese Youth in Transition / Xi Jieying, Sun Yunxiao, Jian Xiao Jing. – Ashgate
Publishing Limited, 2006. – 273 р.
Фролова Н.А., Зазулин Г.В. Актуальные вопросы антинаркотической политики:
отечественный и зарубежный опыт. – М.: Орбита, 2003. – 272 с.
Xin Ren. Prostitution and Employment Opportunities for Women under China's Economic
Reform [Электронныйресурс]. – Режимдоступа:
«Насилие, направленное против собственной жизни и здоровья» [Электронный ресурс]. –
УДК 321:342.3; 321.6/.8
IMPACT OF POVERTY FOR THE AFRICAN COUNTRY’S INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Sh. Adilova Scientific Supervisor Prof. Zhuldyz Tulibayeva Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Economics Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı, Uluslararası İlişkiler için Afrika ülkelerinin yoksulluğu nasıl etkilediğini
bulmaktır. Afrika ülkelerinin modern durumu iyi bir konumda değil. Hemen hemen tüm ülkeler yoksulluk
içinde bulunmaktadır. Üstelik onlar dünyanın en fakir ülkeleridir. Tabii ki bu onların Uluslararası
İlişkilerine etkiler. Bu amaçla, biz onların dış ilişkilerini her göz önünde bulundurmamız gerekir. Dünyada
ve Büyük Güçlerin önünde yerini analiz ederiz. Onların diğer devletlerle dış ilişkileri var. Ama tatmin
edici bir şekilde değil. Zengin ve güçlü devletlerin bu çok kötü ülkelerle eşit muamele istemediği oldukça
doğaldır. Ancak, bu tür pozisyonlarda olmamalıdır. Onlara yardımcı olmalıdırçünkübunun için bir şey
kaybetmez. Yeterince güç ve fakirlere yardım için yeteneği var. Bu fırsatların kullanarak pek çok insanlara
yardım edecek ve onların teşekkürünü ve şükranını alabilir. Ayrıca onlar dünyayı istikrarlı ve
koşullarındaha iyi olması için yardımcı olabilir.
Annotation The purpose of this research is to find out how affects poverty of African countries to their
International Relations. The modern condition of African countries is not in a good position. Almost all its
countries are in poverty. Moreover they are the poorest countries in the world. Of course it affects for their
International Relations. For this aim we should consider all their external relations. Analyze their place in
the world and in front of Big Powers. They have external relations with other states. But it is not in
satisfactory way. It is natural that rich and powerful states do not want equal treatment with such very poor
countries. But they should not be in such positions. They should help them, because they do not lose
anything for this.They have enough power and ability to help poor. Using these abilities they can help
many people and receive their thanks and gratitude. Also they can help the world to be stable and
conditionsto become better.
Key Words: Africa, African countries, poverty, International Relations, International Organizations.
Түйін Бұл зерттеу жұмысының негізгі мақсаты – Африка мемлекеттерінің Халықаралық
Қатыныстарына кедейліктің әсерін анықтау. Африка елдерінің қазіргі таңдағы жағдайы онша мәз
емес. Африка елдерінің барлығы дерлік кедейлік қамытын киген. Сонымен қатар бұл елдер
әлемдегі ең кедей елдер санатына жатады. Әрине бұл жағдай ондағы мемлекеттердің Халықаралық
Қатыныстарына әсер ететіні сөзсіз. Осыны анықтау мақсатында біз бұл елдердің сыртқы қарым-
қатынасын толық қарастыруымыз қажет. Олардың әлемдегі және күшті мемлекеттірдің алдындағы
орнын білуіміз керек. Африка елдері шет елдермен сыртқы байланыс орнатқан. Бірақ бұл
байланыстар көңіл толтырарлық дәрежеде емес. Бай әрі қуатты мемлекеттердің кедей елдермен тең
дәрежеде қарым-қатынаста болуды қаламайтыны табиғи құбылыс. Бірақ олар мұндай ойда
болмауы керек! Қуатты мемлекеттер жағдайы төмен елдерге көмектесуі қажет, өйткені олар одан
еш нәрсе жоғалтпайды. Олардың кедейлерге көмектесуге барлық мүмкіндігі және күші жеткілікті.
Сол мүмкіндіктерін падалана отырып адамдарға көмек қолын созар болса, олардың алғысы мен
ризалығын алар еді. Сонымен қатар, әлемде тұрақтылықтың орнауына және жағдайдың
жақсаруына көмегін тигізе алады.
Аннотация Целью исследования является выяснить, как влияет бедность Африканских стран в их
международных отношениях. Современное состояние Африканских стран не в лучшем положении.
Почти все страны находятся в нищете. Кроме того, они являются самыми бедными странами в
мире. Конечно, это влияет на их международных отношениях. Для этой цели мы должны
рассмотреть все их внешние отношения. Проанализировать их место в мире и перед крупными
державами. Они имеют внешние отношения с другими государствами. Но это не
удовлетворительным образом. Вполне естественно, что богатые и могущественные государства не
хотят равного обращения с такими очень бедными странами. Но они не должны быть в такой
позиции. Они должны помочь им, потому что они ничего не теряют на этом.Они имеют достаточно
сил и возможностей, чтобы помочь бедным. Использовая этих возможностей они могут помочь
многим людям и получить их благодарность и признательность. Также они могут помочь, чтобы
мир был стабильным и условия стали лучше.
Introduction It is very well known that many African countries are in poverty. But many people could not know
that this poverty affect not only people and internally for the country, but also for country’s external and
International Relations. Of course specialists of International Relations did many researches in this issue.
However ordinary people did not know about them and could not get such information. My aim is to
provide people such information and let them think also about the conditions of the people who live in
such countries and the relations of these countries with the world.
For many decades now, the countries of Africa have been consigned to the bottom of the globes rich
list. Decades of economic stagnation and declining living standards have turned Sub-Saharan Africa into
the world’s poorest region.
It is a problem appropriate for moral and ethical discourse, charity and foreign aids. The rich ought to
help the poor. In Britain households are regularly asked to give donations, to sponsor children, to give one
pound a week to help pay for a school or drill hole for water in a poor rural villages in Africa. The
compassion of the ordinary people, students, parents, workers is called through images of children’s faces
surrounded by rural poverty. Such requests appear in newspapers and magazines, envelopes arrived
through letterboxes and on television advertisement. This creates a popular understanding informed by
compassion, pity and concern for suffering of many human beings far away, but it does not provide an
understanding the reasons of such poverty. /2, p. 987/
Nevertheless, it is enough for ordinary people to know in which conditions they live. Knowing this
they feel compassion for them and will help them. But understanding the reasons of the poverty there is
the aim of International Relations Scholars. They can help to find the ways to reduce poverty and increase
their economy and work for the development of such countries.
Poverty in Africa refers to the lack of basic human needs faced by certain people in African society.
In 2009, 22 of 24 nations identified as having "Low Human Development" on the United Nations' (UN)
Human Development Index were in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006, 34 of the 50 nations on the UN list of
least developed countries are in Africa. In many nations, GDP per capita is less than USD$200 per year,
with the vast majority of the population living on much less. In addition, Africa's share of income has been
consistently dropping over the past century by any measure.
Despite large amounts of land south of the Sahara Desert, small, individual land holdings are rare. In
many nations, land is subject to tribal ownership and in others, most of the land is often in the hands of
descendants of European settlers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For example, according to a
2005 IRIN report, about 82% of the land in South Africa is owned by those of European descent. Many
nations lack a system of freehold landowning. In others, the laws prevent people from disadvantaged
groups from owning land at all. Although often these laws are ignored, and land sales to disadvantaged
groups occur, legal title to the land is not assured. As such, rural Africans rarely have clear title to their
own land, and have to survive as farm laborers. Unused land is plentiful, but is often private property.
Most African nations have very poor land registration systems, making squatting and land theft common
occurrences. This makes it difficult to get a mortgage or similar loan, as ownership of the property often
cannot be established to the satisfaction of financiers. This system often gives an advantage to one native
African group over another, and is not just Europeans over Africans. For example, it was hoped that land
reform in Zimbabwe would transfer land from European land owners to family farmers. Instead, it simply
substituted native Africans with ties to the government for Europeans, leaving much of the population
disadvantaged. Because of this abuse, foreign aid that was destined for land purchases was withdrawn.
Almost all of African countries were colonies of European states. Even after taking their
independence they remained dependence from them. These countries had many debts for European states.
They became poorer because they had to pay them. So government has no money to pay citizens, for their
education, health care and other needs.
There is no even clean water in African countries to drink. So almost all of them have different kind
of diseases.3,000 Africans die each day of AIDS and an additional 11,000 are infected. Diseases once
common but now almost unknown in most of the industrialized world, like malaria, tuberculosis,
tapeworm and dysentery often claim far more victims, particularly among the young.
There are also war and conflict situations in African countries. Despite other hot spots for war, Africa
consistently remains long standing civil wars (e.g. Somalia) and conflicts between countries (e.g. Ethiopia
and Eritrea's border wars after the latter's independence from the former). Despite a lack of basic social
services or even the basic necessities of life, military forces are often well financed and well equipped.
Because of these their external problems civilians could not achieve money for their daily basic needs. As
a result, Africa is full of refugees, who are often deliberately displaced by military forces during a conflict.
Civil wars usually have the result of totally shutting down all government services. And any conflict
generally disrupts their trade or economy.
Being colonies for many years these countries afraid of Europeans and hate them. Civilians of these
countries accept all white people as their big enemies. They even do not know that there exist good and
peaceful white people in the world. Civilians have not relations with white people or citizens of other
states, but they may meet them in their country. When they met them they feel hostility. They try to avoid
any relations with them.
Governments of these African countries have external relations with other states. But they feel
themselves uncomfortable. These African countries are developing states. Developing countries have
relations with other big countries and World Powers. They are susceptible with all actions of other states.
If even little thing was wrong African countries may feel disrespect for themselves. They pay attention
even to very little details.
Today many International Organizations and funds are helping African poor countries.
International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization are classic examples of
neo-liberal institutions that control the agenda in Sub-Saharan Africa. /7, p.18/ These institutions are
dominated by the world’s economic powerhouses who control and set the direction the institutions will
take. /8, p.638/
As social expenditure declined and continues to decline in Sub-Saharan Africa, the average person
now has less access to healthcare, education and employment. While the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa
continue to grow in real terms, the number of those below the poverty line fails to change. This is reflected
in the data. Zambia’s GDP, for example, has increased between 5 and 9 percent over the ten years for
example, but since 1993 at least 80 percent of its populations have been below the poverty line and similar
figures are true of many other Sub-Saharan African states.
It is clear then that Sub-Saharan Africa has failed to see significant improvements in poverty
indicators for many reasons, both internal and external. There are so many factors: environmental
degradation, natural disasters, HIV epidemic and so on. However, it is undoubtedly that Sub-Saharan
Africa has been seriously disadvantaged by the arbitrary borders of imposed by empires. Wars, coups and
a doubtful democratic tradition are all a result of this and money that could have been spent on
development and lifting people out of poverty has been lost. Poor governance, corrupt leadership and
awful policy choices sent the region into a downward spiral, with increasing debts, crumbling
infrastructure and an over reliance on natural resources. A lack of investment in areas such as healthcare
and education kept people in the poverty trap. Perhaps due to its inefficient nature and high levels of
corruption, the region has been increasingly marginalized in the international system and levels of
engagement with Africa have increased only in terms of Aid, and the Sub-Saharan Africa in particular is
portrayed as a basket case.
The region has been unable to develop its economies through protectionism. Economic sanctions
imposed by Bretton Woods institutions, such as the IMF’s structural adjustment programs, are forward
looking and well meaning, but do little to help those at the bottom of the social scale. So it can be said the
poverty indicators themselves are of little help to Sub-Saharan Africa. Indicators such as the Millennium
Development Goals are “one-size fits all” and fail to take in to account differences between states. Less
money spent on measuring poverty and more spent working to reduce it could well be the way to progress.
After all, measuring poverty is not the same as alleviating it.
International Organizations and World Big Powers should help African poor countries. First of all
they must thank that they are not in such conditions. Everything is possible. Even they could be in the
place of African countries. So they must understand this and help poor countries. Because they have
enough ability and power to help them. In such rich countries they spend money for nothing. Instead of
wasting money they should help poor countries with this fortune.
Combating Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa
Robin Clempson, April 25, 2012
International Human Development Indicators,www.undp.org
LDCs List. Un.org. Retrieved on 2011-10-31.
SOUTH AFRICA: Land ownership remains racially skewed. 24 May 2005 (Integrated
Regional Information Networks, IRIN)
In-depth: Land reform in Southern Africa. SOUTHERN AFRICA: Overview. 1 July 2003
Petras, James. Veltmeyer, Henry (2001) Globalization Unmasked. Imperialism in the 21 st century. Zed Books, London
Luiz, John M. (2006) The wealth of some and the poverty of Sub Saharan Africa.
International Journal of Social Economics. Vol. 33 No. 9, 2006 pp. 625-648
Adepoji, Aderanti (ed. 1993) The Impact of Structural Adjustment on the Population of Africa. James Currey, London
EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON AN ENTERPRISE: CASE OF “SKYMAX TECHNOLOGIES” Karymbayeva R., Bekbergenova A., Rakhmatullina A. Scientific Supervisor Yelena Smirnova, MSc Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Economics
Abstract Development of employees has become an important aspect of every organization. However,
employees have different attitudes towards training: some of them are quite resistant; others are very
excited about learning new things. This paper looks at the attitudes of employees towards training and
development given their gender. The data for study was collected via questionnaires from 19 employees of
a LLP “Skymax Technologies”. The results suggest that women have more positive perceptions of the
quality of training conducted in their company rather than men.
Keywords: training and development, gender, enterprise, Kazakhstan
Аңдатпа Қызметкерлердің дамуы - әр мекеменің маңызды аспекті болып табылады. Дегенмен,
қызметкерлердің тренингке көзқарастары әр түрлі: бірісі қарсы, бірісі жаңа нәрсе үйренуге
талпынып тұрады. Бүл ғылыми жүмыс жүмысшылардың жынысына қарай тренинг пен дамуға
көзқарастарын анықтады. Осы жүмысқа арнайы “Skymax Technologies”мекемесінен 19
жұмысшыдан сауаланама алу арқылы ақпарат жиналды. Қорытындылай келе, әйел адамдар ерлерге
қарағанда тренингке оң көзді қарайтындарына көз жеткіздік.
Түйін сөздер: даму мен тренинг, жыныс, мекеме, Казақстан
Аннотация Обучение и развитие персонала является одним из ключевых моментов в достижении успеха
любой компании. Однако сотрудники предприятий имеют различное отношение к обучению: одни
сопротивляются новым знаниям, другие смотрят на новизну с большим интересом. Данное
исследование определяет отношение работников к обучению и развитию согласно гендерной
характеристике. Материалы для исследования были собраны посредством анкетирования 19
работников на предприятии TOO "Skymax Тechnologies”. Результаты показали, что сотрудники
женского пола имеют более положительное отношение к повышению квалификации по сравнению
с их коллегами мужского пола.
Ключевые слова: развитие и обучение, пол, предприятие, Казахстан
Effective human resource management is a challenge for many companies today. Smart managers
understand the importance of development and training of an existing labor force. Consequently,
companies invest huge amounts of money to increase knowledge and, therefore, effectiveness of their
There is a wide range of methods available for training and development of employees. Enterprises
may select a suitable one(s) based on the needs of the organization, business environment, and etc. In
other words, every organization wants to train and develop its employees in a way in which a greater
success can be achieved. A properly chosen method helps to motivate employees to learn. Training is an
invaluable investment of the company into their future, as employees are typically considered to be assets
of an organization.
Literature review. During the process of recruiting or selecting the candidate from outside, it is
usually expected by an employer that the candidate has basic knowledge and is able to carry out his/her
job duties effectively. However, a new comer usually does not know the specifics of a company and as a
rule is provided with some kind of training. Cayer et al. (1993) claims that training helps employees to
obtain useful and needed skills to cope with a particular situation /1/. Rogers & Horrocks (2010) explains
training as having narrow goals, specifying the “right” way to do something /2/. In contrast, Edwin B.
Flippo (1980) defined training as “the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a
particular job /3/.” According to Mathis and Jackson (2005), “Training is a learning process whereby
people acquire skills, concepts, attitudes or knowledge to aid in the achievement of goals /4/.”
Whereas Pedlar (1995) defines development as making the most that one can out of opportunities in
both the outer and inner sphere /5/. The basic idea of development is that each of us is individual, unique,
because each of us has different background, situations, culture and etc. by interacting with others, by
solving the problems, situations it is possible to improve and develop ourselves. Development process is
everywhere, every time, it doesn’t need special time, definite place, and it is not limited with formal
parameters. Baum (1995) identifies development as a process which can take place at any time and is not
constrained by formal parameters or at specified points within an individual’s life cycle /6/.
The concept of “Training and development” was defined by Harrison (2005) as the field which is
concerned with organizational activity. Its goal is the bettering the performance of individuals and groups
in organizational settings /7/.
Today, it is observed that all organizations with different types of functions need to have well trained,
experienced and skilled people to perform various activities. Each year organizations spend on training
millions of dollars and pay for it more attention and recognize all benefits, importance of training. Many
companies in Kazakhstan also started to invest in trainings. 67 percent of Kazakhstan’s companies train
their employees, Tengrinews.kz reports citing a survey by the HeadHunter /8/. According to the poll, 67
percent of the companies with under 50 and over 500 employees provide development and training for
their personnel. Most frequently the companies send their employees to training elsewhere and only a
quarter of the polled companies have their own training centers, personnel development departments or
corporate universities. A majority of the companies train their employees free of charge (for the
employees). One third of the companies with 300-500 employees hold back portions of the trained
employees’ salaries during a set period of time to cover their training expenses. 75 percent of the
companies with 100-300 and over 500 employees train personnel free of charge (for the personnel), but
under a condition that the trained employees continue to work in the company for a certain period of time.
Training and development are supported by Legislation of Kazakhstan. By another word, Labour
Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 15 May 2007 No. 251"Kazakhstan Pravda" of 22 May 2007 No. 76
(25321) – Chapter 11 Occupational Training, re-training and further training describe and explain all
rights of employee and employer /9/.As was mentioned above, staff training is an investment to the future
of a company. Capital investment in professional development helps create a favorable team climate,
increases employee motivation and loyalty to company, and ensures management succession… Trained
employees benefit by acquiring new knowledge and skills that enable them to perform their jobs better.
Additionally, trained employees describe feelings of increased usefulness and belonging in the
organization which shows us intrinsic benefits. Extrinsic benefits include things as higher earnings,
improved marketability, security of employment, enhanced opportunities for advancement and promotion.
Julie Bos (2008) found answer for the question: “What kinds of activities usually require training?”
The most common training topics include, among others, safety, customer service, computer skills, quality
initiatives, dealing with sexual harassment and communication /10/.
Training can be varies of types and can be designed to meet a number of objectives and can be
classified in various ways. . It depends on the needs of the organization, the trainee, and on the task that
should be done. The method should be matched according to the audience, the content, the business
environment, and the learning objectives. Ideally, chosen method will facilitate employees to learn, help
employees to prepare themselves for learning, motivate the trainees to apply and practice what they have
been taught, help trainees retain, analyze and transfer what they have learned, and combine performance
with other skills and knowledge. So, based on the training goals and need assessments, an appropriate
method may be chosen.
Methodology. The study was designed as an exploratory one aimed at describing the aspects of
training on an enterprise LLP “SKYMAX Technology”. “Skymax Technologies” company is successful
and dynamically developing in the market of Kazakhstan and Central Asia which was founded in 2002
under the support of “Royal Philips Electronics B.v.”, the Netherlands. The company maintains leading
positions in the markets of service providing in the field of hotel and telecommunication solutions, excess
control systems, airfield lighting systems and meteorological equipment.
The survey focused on operating employees from “Skymax Technologies”. The survey involved the
use of questionnaire which was distributed to 19 employees. Overall, 18 filled in questionnaires were
returned which resulted in 94.7% response rate.
The demographic profile of the respondents was represented by both males (50%) and females (50%).
27.8% of interviewed employees were between 16-25 years old, 33.3% were at the 26-35 age category,
16.7% were between 36-45 years old, 11.1% were between 46-55, and 11.11% were at the category of 553
years old and more.
It is worth to mention that each employee is working in the company for 6 years on average that
shows the degree of satisfaction of a working place. Their loyalty to the “Skymax Technologies” can be
explained by the care of managers, Human Resources department and specialists from outside giving their
employees an opportunity for self-actualization through offered training programs.
Results. The results of the study showed that employees participate in training at least once a month.
However only 30% of respondents improve their skills and develop professional quality regularly.
Regarding the effort of management of the company to organize trainings in different ways, employees are
interested in self-development, going on with the innovativeness and are ready to learn. The survey shows
that weekdays are most suitable for employees to participate the trainings.
In order to identify the attitudes of employees towards the company they work and, in particular,
training and development, the respondents were asked to rate 9 statements on a scale from 5 to 1, where 5
– totally agree, 4 – agree, 3 – I don’t know, 2 – disagree, and 1 – totally disagree (Table 1).
The analysis and interpretation of data showed that the most common answer for the statement
“managers help me to identify my weaknesses and strong sides was “I don’t know”. From the analysis for
the statements “managers help me to improve my weaknesses”, “I’m satisfied with the quality of trainings
in my company”, “The company has a continuous process of developing employees”, “The company has a
consistent and equitable system of compensation reward system”, “Employees have the opportunity to
move up the career ladder, serving applications for open positions within the company”, “The company's
management takes into account the personal achievements of employees”, “Customer feedback on the
quality of the staff are taken into account the guidance of our company”, “I am satisfied with my work” we
can note that the most repeated answer was “agree”, and the mean shows us that the most part are also
Table 1 – Attitudes of employees towards Training and Development
Statements M ean St. Deviation M ode I’m satisfied with the quality of trainings in my
The company has a continuous process of
The company has a consistent and equitable system
of compensation reward system
Employees have the opportunity to move up the
career ladder, serving applications for open positions
within the company
The company's management takes into account the
personal achievements of employees
Customer feedback on the quality of the staff are
taken into account for the guidance of our company
I am satisfied with my work
Managers help me to identify my weaknesses and
Managers help me to improve my weaknesses
Table 2 shows the differences in attitudes of women and men towards the quality of training in their
company. The mode for the statement “I am satisfied with the quality of trainings in my company” is
equal to 4 for both men and women. This means that the most repeated answer among both gender
categories was “agree”. The overall mean for females is equal to 4,11, for males 3,78 indicating that
women tend to be more satisfied with the quality of training rather than men. The standard deviation for
women is equal to 0,7817 and 1,3944 for men showing that women more in their opinions as compared to
men. By comparing these data we can observe there is a great gender difference in the opinions of
employees. In general, females have more positive attitudes to training rather than males.
Table 2 – Satisfaction of males vs. females with the quality of trainings in their company Gen der Mean St. deviation Mode Wom en 4,11
The replies to the statement “I am satisfied with my job” show that the overall mean for women is
equal to 4,00, which means that interviewed women mostly accepted the answer “agree” (Table 3). The
mean of men is equal to 3,67 meaning that males tend to be less satisfied with their job rather than
females. Standard deviation for women is equal to 0,8944 and 1,0327 for men indicating that women’s
opinions more converge than men’s. The mode of women is equal to 4, men’s is 3. Mode of women shows
that large part of interviewed males marked the answer “Don’t know” in comparison with “agree”. A large